A validated computational head–neck model was used to understand the mechanical relationships between surface padding characteristics and injury risk during impacts near the head vertex. The study demonstrated that injury risk can be decreased by maximizing the energy-dissipating ability of the pad, choosing a pad stiffness that maximizes pad deformation without bottoming out, maximizing pad thickness, and minimizing surface friction. That increasing pad thickness protected the head without increasing neck loads suggests that the increased cervical spine injury incidence previously observed in cadaveric impacts to padded surfaces relative to lubricated rigid surfaces was due to increased surface friction rather than pocketing of the head in the pad.
The Influence of Surface Padding Properties on Head and Neck Injury Risk
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division April 13, 1999; revised manuscript received April 17, 2001. Associate Editor: R. T. Hart.
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Camacho , D. L. A., Nightingale , R. W., and Myers, B. S. (April 17, 2001). "The Influence of Surface Padding Properties on Head and Neck Injury Risk ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2001; 123(5): 432–439. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1389086
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