The flow through a curved tube model of a coronary artery was investigated computationally to determine the importance of time-varying curvature on flow patterns that have been associated with the development of atherosclerosis. The entry to the tube was fixed while the radius of curvature varied sinusoidally in time at a frequency of 1 or 5 Hz. Angiographic data from other studies suggest that the radius of curvature waveform contains significant spectral content up to 6 Hz. The overall flow patterns were similar to those observed in stationary curved tubes; velocity profile skewed toward the outer wall, secondary flow patterns, etc. The effects of time-varying curvature on the changes in wall shear rate were expressed by normalizing the wall shear rate amplitude with the shear rate calculated at the static mean radius of curvature. It was found that the wall shear rate varied as much as 94 percent of the mean wall shear rate at the mid wall of curvature for a mean curvature ratio of 0.08 and a 50 percent change in radius of curvature. The effects of 5 Hz deformation were not well predicted by a quasi-static approach. The maximum values of the normalized inner wall shear rate amplitude were found to scale well with a dimensionless parameter equivalent to the product of the mean curvature ratio (δ), normalized change in radius of curvature (ε), and a Womersley parameter (α). This parameter was less successful at predicting the amplitudes elsewhere in the tube, thus additional studies are necessary. The mean wall shear rate was well predicted with a static geometry. These results indicate that dynamic curvature plays an important role in determining the inner wall shear rates in coronary arteries that are subjected to deformation levels of εδα>0.05. The effects were not always predictable with a quasi-static approach. These results provide guidelines for constructing more realistic models of coronary artery flow for atherogenesis research.
Frequency Dependence of Dynamic Curvature Effects on Flow Through Coronary Arteries
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division Feb. 2000; revised manuscript received Nov. 2000. Associate Editor: C. Ross Ethier.
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Moore, , J. E., Weydahl , E. S., and Santamarina, A. (November 1, 2000). "Frequency Dependence of Dynamic Curvature Effects on Flow Through Coronary Arteries ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. April 2001; 123(2): 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1351806
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