Measurements of the sagittal profiles of the articular surfaces of 24 femoral condyles were performed using a laser range finder. An algebraic algorithm was developed to reconstruct the measured sagittal profiles with simple geometry. In particular, it has been shown that a two-circular-arc model provides a very accurate reconstruction of the actual profiles in the femorotibial contact region. The average sagittal profile was used for a femorotibial contact analysis of TKA implants. The contact analysis was performed by using a rigid-body-spring model extended to the case of nonlinear force-deformation behavior of the tibial polyethylene component.

1.
Wismans
,
J.
,
Veldpaus
,
F.
,
Janssen
,
J.
,
Huson
,
A.
, and
Struben
,
P.
,
1980
, “
A Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model of the Knee-Joint
,”
J. Biomech.
,
13
, pp.
677
685
.
2.
Ateshian
,
G. A.
,
Soslowsky
,
L. J.
, and
Mow
,
V. C.
,
1991
, “
Quantitation of Articular Surface Topography and Cartilage Thickness in Knee Joints Using Stereophotogrammetry
,”
J. Biomech.
,
24
, pp.
761
776
.
3.
Huiskes
,
R.
,
Kremers
,
J.
,
De Lange
,
A.
,
Woltring
,
H. J.
,
Selvik
,
G.
, and
Van Rens
,
Th. J. G.
,
1985
, “
Analytical Stereophotogrammetry Determination of Three-Dimensional Knee-Joint Geometry
,”
J. Biomech.
,
18
, pp.
559
570
.
4.
Ateshian
,
G. A.
,
1993
, “
A B-Spline Least-Squares Surface-Fitting Method for Articular Surfaces of Diarthrodial Joints
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
115
, pp.
366
373
.
5.
Zoghi
,
M.
,
Hefzy
,
M. S.
,
Fu
,
K. C.
, and
Jackson
,
W. T.
,
1992
, “
A Three-Dimensional Morphometrical Study of the Distal Human Femur
,”
J. Eng. Med.
,
206
, pp.
147
157
.
6.
Elias
,
S. G.
,
Freeman
,
M. A. R.
, and
Gokcay
,
E. I.
,
1990
, “
A Correlative Study of the Geometry and Anatomy of the Distal Femur
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
260
, pp.
98
103
.
7.
Garg
,
A.
, and
Walker
,
P. S.
,
1990
, “
Prediction of Total Knee Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Computer-Graphics Model
,”
J. Biomech.
,
23
, pp.
45
58
.
8.
Rehder
,
U.
,
1983
, “
Morphometrical Studies on the Symmetry of the Human Knee Joint: Femoral Condyles
,”
J. Biomech.
,
16
, pp.
351
361
.
9.
Ro¨stlund
,
T.
,
Carlsson
,
L.
,
Albrektsson
,
B.
, and
Albrektsson
,
T.
,
1989
, “
Morphometrical Studies of Human Femoral Condyles
,”
J. Biomed. Eng.
,
11
, pp.
442
448
.
10.
Walker
,
P. S.
,
1988
, “
Bearing Surface Design in Total Knee Replacement
,”
Eng. Med.
,
17
, pp.
149
156
.
11.
Walker
,
P. S.
,
Rovick
,
J. S.
, and
Robertson
,
D. D.
,
1988
, “
The Effects of Knee Brace Hinge Design and Placement on Joint Mechanics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
21
, pp.
965
974
.
12.
Wyss, U. P., Doerig, M., Frey, O., and Gschwend, N., 1982, Biomechanics: Principles and Applications, R. Huiskes, D. Van Campen, and J. De Wijn, eds., Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 291–297.
13.
Hollister
,
A. M.
,
Jatana
,
S.
,
Singh
,
A. K.
,
Sullivan
,
W. W.
, and
Lupichuk
,
A. G.
,
1993
, “
The Axes of Rotation of the Knee
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
290
, pp.
259
268
.
14.
Kurosawa
,
H.
,
Walker
,
S.
,
Abe
,
S.
,
Garg
,
A.
, and
Hunter
,
T.
,
1985
, “
Geometry and Motion of the Knee for Implant and Orthotic Design
,”
J. Biomech.
,
18
, pp.
487
499
.
15.
Mensch
,
J. S.
, and
Amstutz
,
H. C.
,
1975
, “
Knee Morphology as a Guide to Knee Replacement
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
112
, pp.
231
241
.
16.
Walker
,
P. S.
, and
Garg
,
A.
,
1991
, “
Range of Motion in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Computer Analysis
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
262
, pp.
227
235
.
17.
Ishikawa
,
H.
,
Fujiki
,
H.
, and
Yasuda
,
K.
,
1996
, “
Contact Analysis of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Articular Plate in Artificial Knee Joint During Gait Movement
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
118
, pp.
377
386
.
18.
Wimmer
,
M. A.
, and
Andriacchi
,
T. P.
,
1997
, “
Tractive Forces During Rolling Motion of the Knee: Implications for Wear in Total Knee Replacement
,”
J. Biomech.
,
30
, pp.
131
137
.
19.
Bartel
,
D. L.
,
Burstein
,
A. H.
,
Toda
,
M. D.
, and
Edwards
,
D. L.
,
1985
, “
The Effect of Conformity and Plastic Thickness on Contact Stresses in Metal-Backed Plastic Implants
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
107
, pp.
193
199
.
20.
Bartel
,
D. L.
,
Bicknell
,
V. L.
,
Ithaca
,
X. Y.
, and
Wright
,
T. M.
,
1986
, “
The Effect of Conformity, Thickness, and Material on Stresses in Ultra-High Molecular Weight Components for Total Joint Replacement
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
68-A
, pp.
1041
1051
.
21.
Bartel
,
D. L.
,
Rawlinson
,
J. J.
,
Burstein
,
A. H.
,
Ranawat
,
C. S.
, and
Flynn
,
W. F.
,
1995
, “
Stresses in Polyethylene Components of Contemporary Total Knee Replacements
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
317
, pp.
76
82
.
22.
Kawai
,
T.
,
1980
, “
Some Considerations on the Finite Element Method
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng.
,
16
, pp.
81
120
.
23.
Li
,
G.
,
Sakamoto
,
M.
, and
Chao
,
E. Y. S.
,
1997
, “
A Comparison of Different Methods in Predicting Static Pressure Distribution in Articulating Joints
,”
J. Biomech.
,
30
, pp.
635
638
.
24.
Waldman
,
S. D.
, and
Bryant
,
J. T.
,
1994
, “
Compressive Stress Relaxation Behavior of Irradiated Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene at 37°C
,”
J. Appl. Biomater
,
5
, pp.
333
338
.
25.
Kalker, J. J., 1985, A Course of Contact Mechanics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
26.
Blankevoort
,
L.
,
Kuiper
,
R.
,
Huiskes
,
J. H.
, and
Grootenboer
,
H. J.
,
1991
, “
Articular Contact in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Knee
,”
J. Biomech.
,
24
, pp.
1019
1031
.
27.
Morrison
,
J. B.
,
1968
, “
Bioengineering Analysis of Force Actions Transmitted by the Knee Joint
,”
Biomed. Eng.
,
3
, pp.
164
170
.
28.
Morrison
,
J. B.
,
1969
, “
Function of the Knee Joint in Various Activities
,”
Biomed. Eng.
,
4
, pp.
573
580
.
29.
Zar, J. H., 1996, Biostatistical Analysis, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 662.
30.
Hsu
,
R. W. W.
,
Himeno
,
S.
,
Coventry
,
M. B.
, and
Chao
,
E. Y. S.
,
1990
, “
Normal Axial Alignment of the Lower Extremity and Load-Bearing Distribution at the Knee
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
255
, pp.
215
227
.
31.
Yoshioka
,
Y.
,
Siu
,
D.
, and
Cooke
,
T. D. V.
,
1987
, “
The Anatomy and Functional Axes of the Femur
,”
J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
,
69-A
, pp.
873
880
.
32.
Herzog
,
R. J.
,
Silliman
,
J. F.
,
Hutton
,
K.
,
Rodkey
,
W. G.
, and
Steadman
,
J. R.
,
1994
, “
Measurements of the Intercondylar Notch by Plain Film Radiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
,
22
, pp.
204
210
.
33.
Harris
,
M. L.
,
Morberg
,
P.
,
Bruce
,
W. J. M.
, and
Walsh
,
W. R.
,
1999
, “
An Improved Method for Measuring Tibiofemoral Contact Areas in Total Knee Arthroplasty: a Comparison of K-can and Fuji Film
,”
J. Biomech.
,
32
, pp.
951
958
.
You do not currently have access to this content.