Whiplash injuries sustained during a rear-end automobile collision have significant societal impact. The scientific literature on whiplash loading is both diverse and confusing. Definitive studies are lacking to describe the local mechanisms of injury that induce either acute or chronic pain symptoms. A methodology has been presented to quantify the kinematics of the cervical spine components by inducing controlled whiplash-type forces to intact human head-neck complexes. The localized facet joint kinematics and the overall segmental motions of the cervical spine are presented. It is anticipated that the use of this methodology will assist in a better delineation of the localized mechanisms of injury leading to whiplash pain.

1.
Aprill
C.
,
Dwyer
A.
, and
Bogduk
N.
, “
Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain patterns II: A clinical evaluation
,”
Spine
, Vol.
15
, No.
6
,
1990
, pp.
458
461
.
2.
Barnsley
L.
,
Lord
S.
, and
Bogduk
N.
, “
Clinical Review—Whiplash Injury
,”
Pain
, Vol.
58
,
1994
, pp.
283
307
.
3.
Deng
Y. C.
, and
Goldsmith
W.
, “
Response of a human head/neck/uppertorso replica to dynamic loading
,”
J. Biomech.
, Vol.
20
,
1987
, pp.
471
498
.
4.
Dwyer
A.
,
Aprill
C.
, and
Bogduk
N.
, “
Cervical zygapophysial joint pain patterns 1: A study in normal volunteers
,”
Spine
, Vol.
15
,
1990
, pp.
453
457
.
5.
Panjabi, M. M., Cholewicki, J., Babat, L., Nibu, K., and Dvorak, J., “A new approach to whiplash biomechanics,” in: 42nd Orthopaedic Research Society Proceedings, Atlanta, GA, 1996, p. 163.
6.
Pintar, F. A., Sances, A., Jr., Yoganandan, N., Reinartz, J. M., Maiman, D. J., Suh, J. K., Unger, G., Cusick, J. F., and Larson, S. J., “Biodynamics of the total human cadaver cervical spine,” Proc. 34th Stapp Car Crash Conf., Orlando, FL, SAE paper #902309, 1990, pp. 55–72.
7.
Pintar
p. A.
,
Yoganandan
N.
,
Pesigan
M.
,
Reinartz
J. M.
,
Sances
A.
, and
Cusick
J. F.
, “
Cervical vertebral strain measurements under axial and eccentric loading
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING
, Vol.
117
,
1995
, pp.
474
478
.
8.
Spitzer
W. O.
,
Skovron
M. L.
,
Salmi
L. R.
,
Cassidy
J. D.
,
Duranceau
J.
,
Suissa
S.
, and
Zeiss
E.
, “
Scientific monograph of the Quebec task force on whiplash-associated disorders: Redefining ’Whiplash’ and its management
,”
Spine
, Vol.
20
, No.
85
,
1995
, pp.
ls–73s
ls–73s
.
9.
Szabo, T. J., Welcher, J. B., Anderson, R. D., Rice, M. M., Ward, J. A., Paulo, L. R., and Carpenter, N. J., “Human occupant kinematic response to low speed rear-end impacts,” SAE Paper #940532, 1994, pp. 630–642.
10.
Yoganandan
N.
, and
Pintar
F. A.
, “
Inertial loading of the human cervical spine
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING
, Vol.
119
,
1997
, pp.
237
240
.
11.
Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F. A., and Cusick, J. F., “Cervical spine kinematics under inertial flexion extension,” Proc. North American Spine Society, Vancouver, Canada, Oct. 23–26, 1996, pp. 265–266.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.