Experimental evidence suggests that the tensile behavior of tendons and ligaments is in part a function of tissue hydration. The models currently available do not offer a means by which the hydration effects might be explicitly explored. To study these effects, a finite element model of a collagen sub-fascicle, a substructure of tendon and ligament, was formulated. The model was microstructurally based, and simulated oriented collagen fibrils with elastic-orthotropic continuum elements. Poroelastic elements were used to model the interfibrillar matrix. The collagen fiber morphology reflected in the model interacted with the interfibrillar matrix to produce behaviors similar to those seen in tendon and ligament during tensile, cyclic, and relaxation experiments conducted by others. Various states of hydration and permeability were parametrically investigated, demonstrating their influence on the tensile response of the model.
A Poroelastic Model That Predicts Some Phenomenological Responses of Ligaments and Tendons
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Atkinson, T. S., Haut, R. C., and Altiero, N. J. (November 1, 1997). "A Poroelastic Model That Predicts Some Phenomenological Responses of Ligaments and Tendons." ASME. J Biomech Eng. November 1997; 119(4): 400–405. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2798285
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