An approach to the treatment of medium-sized choroidal melanomas combines radiation with ferromagnetic hyperthermia. The study herein discusses results with a numerical thermal model of a choroidal melanoma in the rabbit eye as treated with episcleral, thermoradiotherapy plaques. The sensitivity of a temperature–dependent blood perfusion model is investigated.

1.
Ahuja
A. S.
, “
Acoustical properties of blood: a look at the basic assumptions
,”
Med Phys.
, Vol.
1
,
1974
, pp.
311
316
.
2.
Beyer, W. H., ed., CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, 26th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1981, pp. 276.
3.
Bowman, H. F., “Thermodynamics of tissue heating: modeling and measurements for temperature distributions,” in: Physical Aspects of Hyperthermia, Nussbaum, G. H., ed., American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982, pp. 511–548.
4.
Burnett, D. S., Finite Element Analysis: From Concepts to Applications, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1987, pp. 376–401.
5.
Clarke
A. M.
,
Geeraets
W. J.
, and
Ham
W. T.
, “
An equilibrium thermal model for retinal injury from optical sources
,”
Applied Optics
, Vol.
8
(
5
),
1969
, pp.
1051
1054
.
6.
Cooper
T. E.
, and
Trezek
G. J.
, “
Correlation of thermal properties of some human tissues with water content
,”
Aerospace Medicine
, Vol.
42
,
1971
, pp.
24
27
.
7.
Crank
J.
, and
Nicholson
P.
, “
A practical method for numerical integration of solutions of partial differential equations of heat-conductive type
,”
Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc.
, Vol.
43
,
1947
, p.
50
50
.
8.
Edwards
R. H. T.
,
Hill
D. K.
, and
Jones
D. A.
, “
Heat production and chemical changes during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscle
,”
Jour. of Physiol.
, Vol.
251
,
1975
, pp.
303
315
.
9.
Felstead
E. B.
, and
Cobbold
R. S. C.
, “
Analog solution of laser retinal coagulation
,”
Med. Electron. Biol. Eng.
, Vol.
3
,
1965
, pp.
145
155
.
10.
Gordon
R. G.
,
Roemer
R. B.
, and
Howath
S. M.
, “
A mathematical model of the human temperature regulatory system transient cold exposure response
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
, Vol.
23
,
1976
, pp.
434
444
.
11.
Ham
W. T.
,
Williams
R. C.
,
Mueller
H. A.
,
Ruffin
R. S.
,
Schmidt
F. H.
,
Clarke
A. M.
,
Vos
J. J.
, and
Geeraets
W. J.
, “
Ocular effects of laser radiation
,”
Acta Ophthalmologica
, Vol.
43
,
1965
, pp.
390
409
.
12.
Hanks
J. P.
,
Hayes
L. J.
, and
Diller
K. R.
, “
The effects of blood perfusion on microwave heating of the eye
,”
Bioheat Transfer—Applications in Hyperthermia, Emerging Horizons in Instrumentation and Modeling, Roemer, R. B., McGrath, J. J., and Bowman, H. F., eds.
, ASME HTD-Vol.
126
,
1989
, pp.
89
95
.
13.
Hansen
W. P.
,
Feigen
L.
, and
Fine
S.
, “
A worst–case analysis of continuous wave He-Ne laser hazards to the eye
,”
Applied Optics
, Vol.
6
(
11
),
1967
, pp.
1973
1975
.
14.
Hayes
J. R.
, and
Wolbarsht
M. L.
, “
Thermal model for retinal damage induced by pulsed lasers
,”
Aerospace Medicine
, Vol.
39
,
1968
, pp.
474
480
.
15.
Incropera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, 1990.
16.
Klein, S. A., Beckman, W. A., and Myers, G. E., “FEHT: Finite Element Heat Transfer computer program and users guide,” F-Chart Software, Middleton, WI, 1993.
17.
Kramar
P.
,
Harris
C.
,
Emery
A. F.
, and
Guy
A. W.
, “
Acute microwave irradiation and cataract formation in rabbits and monkeys
,”
Journal of Microwave Power
, Vol.
13
(
3
),
1978
, pp.
239
249
.
18.
Lipkin
M.
, and
Hardy
J. D.
, “
Measurement of some thermal properties of human tissues
,”
Jour. Appl. Physiol.
, Vol.
7
,
1954
, pp.
212
217
.
19.
Myers, G. E., Analytical Methods in Conduction Heat Transfer, Genium Publishing Co., Schenectady, NY, 1987, pp. 320–431.
20.
Mieler
W. F.
,
Jaffe
G. J.
, and
Steeves
R. A.
, “
Ferromagnetic hyperthermia and iodine 125 brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma in a rabbit model
,”
Arch. Ophthal.
, Vol.
107
,
1989
, pp.
1524
1528
.
21.
Nevins, R. G., and Darwish, M. A., “Heat transfer through subcutaneous tissue as heat generating porous material,” in: Physiological and Behavioral Temperature Regulation, Hardy, J. D., Gagge, A. P., and Stolwijk, J. A., eds., Charles C. Thomas Publishing, Springfield, IL, 1970, pp. 281–301.
22.
O’Day
D. M.
,
Fish
M. B.
,
Aronson
S. B.
,
Pollycone
M.
, and
Coon
A.
, “
Ocular blood flow measurements by nuclide labelled microspheres
,”
Arch Ophthal.
, Vol.
86
(
2
),
1971
, pp.
205
209
.
23.
Pauly
H.
, and
Schwan
H. P.
, “
The dielectric properties of the bovine eye lens
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
, Vol.
BME-11
(
3
),
1964
, pp.
103
109
.
24.
Pennes
H. H.
, “
Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm
,”
Jour. Appl. Physiol.
, Vol.
1
,
1948
, pp.
93
122
.
25.
Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., Numerical Recipes in Pascal: the Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1989, pp. 693–700.
26.
Prince, J. H., The Rabbit in Eye Research, Charles C. Thomas Co., Springfield, IL, 1964.
27.
Raithby, G. D., and Hollands, K. G. T., “A general method of obtaining approximate solutions to laminar and turbulent free convection problems,” in: Advances in Heat Transfer, Irvine, T. F., and Hartnett, J. P., eds., Academic Press, New York, 1975, pp. 265–315.
28.
Ridgeway
D.
, “
Three-dimensional steady-state temperature distribution about cylinders and discs
,”
Bull. Math. Biophysics
, Vol.
30
,
1968
, pp.
701
713
.
29.
Root, W. S., “The flow of blood through bones and joints,” in: Handbook of Physiology, Sec. 2, Vol. II, American Physiological Society, Washington, DC, 1963, pp. 1657.
30.
Schwartz
B.
, and
Feller
M. R.
, “
Temperature gradients in the rabbit eye
,”
Invest. Ophthal.
, Vol.
1
(
4
),
1962
, pp.
513
521
.
31.
Scotto
J.
,
Fraumeni
J. F.
, and
Lee
J. A.
, “
Melanomas of the eye and other noncutaneous sites: Epidemiologic aspects
,”
J. Nat. Cancer Inst.
, Vol.
56
,
1976
, pp.
489
491
.
32.
Song
C. W.
,
Lokshina
A.
,
Rhee
J. G.
,
Patten
M.
, and
Levitt
S. H.
, “
Implication of blood flow in hyperthermic treatment of tumors
,”
IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Engr.
, Vol.
31
,
1984
, pp.
9
16
.
33.
Spells, K. E., “The production of radiation burns on the retina at the threshold level of damage: a literature survey and tentative mathematical theory,” Flying Personnel Research Committee, R.A.F. Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough-Hants, England, Report No. FPRC/1222, 1964.
34.
Stauffer
P. R.
,
Cetas
T. C.
, and
Jones
R. C.
, “
Magnetic induction heating of ferromagnetic implants for inducing localized hyperthermia in deep-seated tumors
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engr.
, Vol.
BME-31
,
1984
, pp.
235
251
.
35.
Steeves
R. A.
,
Murray
T. G.
,
Moros
E. G.
,
Boldt
H. C.
,
Mieler
W. F.
, and
Paliwal
B. R.
, “
Concurrent ferromagnetic hyperthermia and 125I brachytherapy in a rabbit choroidal melanoma model
,”
Int. Jour. Hyperthermia
, Vol.
8
(
4
),
1992
, pp.
443
449
.
36.
Tompkins
D. T.
,
Vanderby
R.
,
Klein
S. A.
,
Beckman
W. A.
,
Steeves
R. A.
, and
Paliwal
B. R.
, “
Effect of interseed spacing, tissue perfusion, thermoseed temperatures and catheters in ferromagnetic hyperthermia: results from simulations using finite element models of thermoseeds and catheters
,”
IEEE Trans. in Biomedical Engr.
, Vol.
41
,
1994
a, pp.
975
985
.
37.
Tompkins
D. T.
,
Vanderby
R.
,
Klein
S. A.
,
Beckman
W. A.
,
Steeves
R. A.
,
Frye
D. M.
, and
Paliwal
B. R.
, “
Temperature-dependent versus constant-rate blood perfusion modelling in ferromagnetic thermoseed hyperthermia: results with a model of the human prostate
,”
Inter. Jour. Hyperthermia
, Vol.
10
(
4
),
1994
b, pp.
517
536
.
38.
Waddell
D. E.
,
Rylander
H. G.
,
Ghaffari
S.
,
Diller
K. R.
, and
Farrar
R. M.
, “
Transient temperature field in the eye during microwave irradiation at 35 GHz
,” in:
Advances in Biological Heat and Mass Transfer
, McGrath, J. J., ed., ASME HTD-Vol.
231
,
1992
, pp.
1
6
.
39.
White
T. J.
,
Mainster
M. A.
,
Tips
J. H.
, and
Wilson
P. W.
, “
Chorioretinal thermal behavior
,”
Bull. Math. Biophysics
, Vol.
32
(
3
),
1970
, pp.
315
322
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.