In an attempt to test the hypothesis of spontaneous hip fracture, seven pairs of femurs, with ages ranging from 59 to 90, were tested under two loading conditions designed to simulate muscular contraction. Simulated iliopsoas contraction produced femoral neck fractures at an average normalized ultimate load of 5.2 ± 0.8 times body weight. Simulated gluteus medius contraction produced sub-/inter-trochanteric fractures at an average normalized ultimate load of 4.1 ± 0.6 times body weight. The average ultimate load for all specimens was 3040 ± 720 N. Fracture patterns produced by both loading conditions were clinically relevant. The results from this study suggest that abnormal contraction produced by major rotator muscles could induce hip fracture.
The Relationship Between Loading Conditions and Fracture Patterns of the Proximal Femur
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Yang, K. H., Shen, K., Demetropoulos, C. K., King, A. I., Kolodziej, P., Levine, R. S., and Fitzgerald, R. H., Jr. (November 1, 1996). "The Relationship Between Loading Conditions and Fracture Patterns of the Proximal Femur." ASME. J Biomech Eng. November 1996; 118(4): 575–578. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2796045
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