Employing a validated finite volume code, a computer-aided design of the distal end of a femoral graft-artery junction has been considered to simulate transient three-dimensional blood flow for various flow input waveforms. The study relies on the hypothesis that large sustained wall shear stress gradients play a major role in the rapid recurrence of intimal hyperplasia plus atheroma after bypass surgery, leading to early graft failure. Two new dimensionless parameters have been introduced to correlate flow waveform characteristics with the severity of nonuniform hemodynamics and hence the potential risk for restenosis. The transient and, more importantly, the time-averaged wall shear stress gradient distributions shown, map out the junction areas which are still susceptible to restenosis, especially the toe region. Future geometric modifications will further reduce disturbed flow patterns and hence the probability of graft failure.

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