A joint testing system was designed to transmit a specified motion or force to a joint in all six degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) using a spatial linkage system for position feedback. The precise reproducibility of position provided by this method of position feedback allows determination of in situ ligament forces for external joint loadings. Load on the structure of interest is calculated from six d.o.f. load cell output after the loaded position is reproduced with all other structures removed. In a test of this system, measured loads showed good agreement with applied loads.

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