In this paper, a two-dimensional, three-body segment dynamic model of the human knee is introduced. The model includes tibio-femoral and patello-femoral articulations, and anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, lateral collateral, and patellar ligaments. It enables one to obtain dynamic response of the knee joint to any one or combination of quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscle actions, as well as any externally applied forces on the lower leg. A specially developed human knee animation program is utilized in order to fine tune some model parameters. Numerical results are presented for knee extension under the impulsive action of the quadriceps femoris muscle group to simulate a vigorous lower limb activity such as kicking. The model shows that the patella can be subjected to very large transient patello-femoral contact force during a strenuous lower limb activity even under conditions of small knee-flexion angles. The results are discussed and compared with limited data reported in the literature.

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