Considering transient two-dimensional laminar flow in a diseased carotid artery segment with realistic inlet and outflow conditions, detailed velocity profiles, pressure fields, wall shear stress distributions and coupled, localized plaque formations have been simulated. The type of outflow boundary condition influences to a certain degree the extent of plaque build-up, which in turn reduces “disturbed flow” phenomena such as flow separations, recirculation zones, and wavy flow patterns in the artery branches during portions of the pulse. Based on computer experiments varying key geometric factors, a plaque-mitigating design of a carotid artery bifurcation has been proposed. Elimination of the carotid bulb, a smaller bifurcation angle, lower area ratios, and smooth wall curvatures generated a design with favorable hemodynamics parameters, leading to reduced plaque build-up by factors of 10 and 2 in the internal carotid and in the external carotid, respectively.

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