This paper presents a theory for studies of the large-strain behavior of biological shells composed of layers of incompressible, orthotropic tissue, possibly muscle, of arbitrary orientation. The intrinsic equations of the laminated-shell theory, expressed in lines-of-curvature coordinates, account for large membrane [O(1)] and moderately large bending and transverse shear strains [O(0.3)], nonlinear material properties, and transverse normal stress and strain. An expansion is derived for a general two-dimensional strain-energy density function, which includes residual stress and muscle activation through a shifting zero-stress configuration. Strain-displacement relations are given for the special case of axisymmetric deformation of shells of revolution with torsion.

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