Modelling of the human shoulder complex is essential for the multi-segmented mathematical models as well as design of the shoulder mechanism of anthropometric dummies. In Part I of this paper a three-dimensional kinematic model is proposed by utilizing the concepts of kinematic links, joints, and joint sinuses. By assigning appropriate coordinate systems, parameters required for complete quantitative description of the proposed model are identified. The statistical in-vivo data base established by Engin and Chen (1986) is cast in a form compatible with the model by obtaining a set of unit vectors describing circumductory motion of the upper arm in a torso-fixed coordinate system. This set of unit vectors is then employed in determining the parameters of a composite shoulder complex sinus of a simplified version of the proposed model. Two methods, namely the flexible tolerance and the direct methods, are formulated and tested for the determination of an elliptical cone surface for a given set of generating unit vectors. Numerical results are presented for the apex angles and orientation of the composite joint sinus cone with respect to the anatomical directions.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.