Flow visualization and pressure measurements were made for physiological conditions in a model derived from a femoral angiorgram of a patient with lesion localization on the inner curvature wall and with vessel taper. Effects of curvature and taper were evaluated separately in other curved, tapered, smooth and straight, tapered, smooth models. Double helical secondary flow patterns were modified by plaque on the inner wall, and flow separations were observed between plaques at higher flow rates and Reynolds numbers. Pressure drop data for the plaque simulation model were similar in trend with Reynolds number as for the smooth model, but flow resistances were 25 to 40 percent higher. Significant pressure drops were measured due to the mild taper which could be estimated from momentum considerations, and smaller increased pressure drops were found due to curvature effects at the higher Dean numbers. Flow resistances for in vivo pulsatile flow simulation were about 10 percent higher than for steady flow for the plaque model, whereas no differences were observed for the smooth model.

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