Flow visualization and wall pressure measurements were made in a smooth reverse curvature model that conformed to the gentle “s” shape of a left femoral artery angiogram of a patient in a clinical trial. Observed lesion localization at the inner (lesser) curvatures appeared to be associated with secondary flows in the wall vicinity directed toward the inner curvatures that tended to reverse direction in the flow entering the reverse curvature region. Moderate flow resistance increases of about 20 percent above the Poiseuille flow relation were found at the higher physiological Reynolds numbers Re above about 600–700 and thus Dean numbers for steady flow. For pulsatile flow simulation, flow resistances did not increase up to the largest Re of 470 tested. Apparently, the large variations in velocity during the cardiac cycle disrupted the stronger secondary flow patterns observed at the higher Reynolds numbers for steady flow.

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