The cutting process of orthopaedic bone saws was considered as orthogonal (two-dimensional) cutting for determination of the horizontal and vertical force components of single edge cutting tools with rake angles of 0 to −30 degrees. The Merchant analysis for orthogonal cutting was used to determine the resultant force and other force and work relationships. The effect of an imposed lateral vibration on the cutting tool was also investigated. The results of the tests indicated a strong interaction between the measured and derived forces with the rake angle and feed velocity. It was concluded that to reduce the cutting forces and work expenditure, a negative rake angle between 0 and −10 degrees, high feed velocity, and an imposed lateral vibration provided the greatest reduction in force and energy expenditure.

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