The temperature dependent tensile behavior of ligament was investigated from 2°C to 37°C. Nondestructive cyclic tests were performed on ten canine femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia (FMT) complexes at sequential temperatures of 22°C, 22°C, 27°C, 32°C, 37°C, and again at 22°C. The samples were rested at zero load between tests for sufficient time periods to allow for full recovery from the ligament’s time and history dependent viscoelastic properties. Ten additional FMT complexes were sequentially tested in a similar fashion, but at temperatures of 22°C, 22°C, 2°C, 6°C, 14°C, and 22°C. All canine FMT complexes showed temperature dependent viscoelastic properties: the measured area of hysteresis decreased with increasing temperature; the cyclic load relaxation behavior plateaued to a higher value at lower temperatures; and the tensile load at a predetermined ligament substance strain level had an inversely proportional relationship with respect to temperature.

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