A comparative study of four different muscle models in a musculoskeletal motion problem is made. The models vary in complexity from the simple input-output model to the more complex model of Hatze [I]. These models are used to solve a minimum time kicking problem using an optimal control algorithm. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the model choice on the various predicted kinematic and kinetic parameters in the problem. The study illustrates some of the advantages and disadvantages involved in trade-offs between model complexity and practicability in musculoskeletal motion studies. The results also illustrate the importance of appropriate detailed parameter estimation studies in the mathematical modeling of the musculoskeletal system.

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