This paper surveys biomechanical models of the nonimpact type, involving the musculo-skeletal system. Models of bones, joints and body segments, including human gait and motion of the whole body are discussed. In particular, stress analysis of bone, calculation of ligament and muscle forces across joints and the kinetics and kinematics of locomotion are discussed. The models are described in terms of the method of formulation, the method of solution and the realism of the results obtained. There is a need for more data on material properties of various body tissues and more experimental research to develop techniques for validating many of the models. Further work on the selection of appropriate objective functions for indeterminate problems is also required.

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