Heat and mass transfer mechanisms have been characterized in physical models of human cadaver airways to simulated depths of 305 m with various gas mixtures. Such characterizations offer a detailed understanding of the effects of environmental pressures, gas composition, and respiratory rates (RMV) on the body cooling capacity of the respiratory airways. Empirical heat transfer relationships in the form  
are derived for the oral and nasal passageways during inhalation and exhalation flows. N¯u, Re, and Pr are the dimensionless Nusselt, Reynolds, and Prandtl numbers, respectively. The Nusselt and Reynolds numbers are based on the diameter and gas flow rate in the trachea and are applicable to Reynolds number values up to 70,000.
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