An investigation is described of the mechanics of orthogonal machining of bone. Experimental results are presented for the machining forces and specific energies for various cutting orientations, rake angles, and depths of cut. From microscopic observations on sections taken through the cutting zone, the chip formation process is seen to occur by a series of discrete fractures. A simple model is proposed to qualitatively describe the mechanics of chip formation. The energy expended by the cutting process under a wide variety of conditions is found to increase linearly with the surface area generated on the chip fragments, which is a further indication that chip formation during cutting of bone occurs by fracture.

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