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Keywords: pipelines
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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... In the oil and gas industry, pipelines are the primary economical and safest method for the transportation of high volumes of hydrocarbon fluids at high flow rates over short and long distances. To transport a greater volume of fluids in pipelines, higher operating pressures are required, while...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2019
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7089-6
... pipelines fuel system icing inhibitor filtration Chapter 8 | Aviation Fuels Roger Gaughan,1 Stanford Seto,2 and George Wilson34 209 History AVIATION GASOLINE Early aircraft engines were operated on ordinary straight-run motor gasoline well into the 1920s [1]. Research then isolated uncontrolled...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7068-1
... Numerous petroleum pipelines and storage tanks are under service all around the world. Oil and gas pipelines as well as their storage tanks have played an essential role in the petroleum industry for hundreds of years. These horizontally buried or vertically erected “hollow cylinders” have...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN: 978-0-8031-5522-0
... Modified cathodic disbondment (CD) experiments were carried out over a period of 14 months using 13 coatings used to protect the external surfaces of oil and gas pipelines. During the experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data were recorded, and after the experiments...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN: 978-0-8031-5522-0
... before any visible∕physical changes to the coating. Modified cathodic disbondment (CD) experiments were carried out over a period of 14 months on 13 coatings used to protect the external surfaces of oil and gas pipelines. During the experiments, EQCM measurements were recorded by placing the quartz...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2003
ISBN-10: 0-8031-2899-1
ISBN: 978-0-8031-2899-6
... This study explores further extension of the computational cell methodology to model Mode I crack extension in a high strength pipeline steel. Plane-strain analyses of a tubular structure containing longitudinal cracks with varying crack depth to thickness ratios ( a/t ) are employed...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1994
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1992-5
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1992-5
.... This allows native soils from the trench excavation or from nearby the construction site to be used. Cementitious fly ash has been used in place of cement and bentonite has been added to improve pumping characteristics. soil-cement slurry plastic pipe construction soils pipelines soil treatment...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1993
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1867-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1867-6
... Pressurized pipelines of extruded ductile polyethylenes can, under severe conditions, fail by brittle rapid crack propagation (RCP). Critical pressures, below which RCP always arrests, have been measured for grades of medium-density (MDPE) and modified high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1993
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1858-9
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1858-4
... Experiments were conducted on the underground pipeline at the EPA's UST Test Apparatus in which three acoustic sensors separated by a maximum distance of 38 m (125 ft) were used to monitor signals produced by 11.4-, 5.7-, and 3.8-L/h (3.0-, 1.5-, and 1.0-gal/h) leaks in the wall of a 5-cm...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1993
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1858-9
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1858-4
... A method of leak detection for underground storage tanks and pipelines adds volatile tracers to the product in the tanks and analyzes the surrounding shallow soil gases for tracer vapors. This method has several advantages : the success of the test is not limited by the size and structural...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1992
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1432-X
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1432-6
... The current regulations governing the integrity of corroded gas and oil pipelines are empirical. In many cases the guidelines are very conservative, but even so they are not reliably conservative in all instances. To improve upon this situation, a theoretical approach was taken within elastic...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1990
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1283-1
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1283-4
... The purpose of this paper is to examine current interruption methods of estimating the level of polarization (off-potential) on a buried pipeline and to indicate some of the specific problems associated with field measurements. Data are reviewed that indicate the magnitude of the voltage (IR...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1985
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0225-9
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0225-5
... involving burst tests, wide plate tests, and numerous small-scale tests on a ductile pipeline steel conforming to API 5LX 56 were analyzed by various methods. These included the CTOD design curve, the CEGB R6 method, the method of Kiefner et al for axial flaws in pipelines, together with a pseudo linear...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1984
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0264-X
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0264-4
... Traditional methods of determining the threshold stress for stress-corrosion cracking involve testing a number of specimens that are loaded to various levels of constant initial stress. In research sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association, it was shown...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1983
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0240-2
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0240-8
...-martensite dual-phase steels are discussed, and the results of actual production tests are also presented. steels microstructure controlled rolling pipelines bainite ferrite-martensite steels thick wall pipe mechanical properties H. Takechi,' H. Matsuda, ^ H. Tamehiro, ^ M. Ohashi, ^ and H...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1981
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0703-X
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0703-8
..., and discriminates between profitable and unprofitable procedures. underground corrosion pipelines buried cables polarization cathodic protection steel soil corrosion copper soil corrosion lead soil corrosion protective coatings K. G. Compton^ Corrosion of Buried Pipes and Cables, Techniques...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1980
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0317-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0317-7
... The further development of a mathematical model for steady-state crack propagation in a pressurized pipeline is described. A key parameter in the model—the location of the plastic yield hinge relative to the moving crack tip—was determined by forcing agreement with crack speeds observed...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1980
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0317-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0317-7
... Ductile crack propagation in pneumatically pressurized pipelines is an extremely complex process, involving interactions between the fracturing pipe, the escaping gas, the covering backfill, and mechanical crack arresters, if any are present. In order to extend the experience gained through...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1979
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0517-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0517-1
... properties for up to X70 level with thickness as high as 12 mm. steels microstructure mechanical properties rolling pipelines G. W. Delvecchio,^J. E. Hood,^andD. B. McCutcheon^ Controlled Processing of Molybdenum Bearing Line Pipe Steels REFERENCE: Delvecchio, G. W., Hood, J. E., and McCutcheon...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1979
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0271-2
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0271-2
... This paper describes the results of a five year testing program utilizing acoustic emission (AE) techniques to locate defects in buried gas distribution pipelines. Several weld failures on these lines emphasized the need to develop inspection techniques in order to locate weld flaws in high...