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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... claddings was estimated from the results of eddy-current liftoff studies, metallographic analysis, transmission electron microscopy/scanning electron microscopy studies of the structural-phase state of oxide film, and lithium distribution over the oxide layer thickness studies by laser ablation inductively...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7714-7
... Turbine and other large machines require lubrication where considerable volumes of oil remain in service for numerous years between replacements. The service life for these applications is primarily influenced by oxidation stability and the residues that this degradation creates. Oxidation...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7714-7
... layer. Varnish formation within equipment has been attributed to several issues, including oxidation and thermal decomposition within the fluid, electrostatic spark discharge, excessive operational temperatures, contamination ingress, and additive decomposition. In some recent case studies of gas...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7714-7
... the TGA technique for assessing the thermal stability and compositional analysis of most any hydrocarbon materials. The DSC standards such as E487, E537, E1858, E2009, and E2046 can be used to study in‐service lubricant lifetimes by evaluating lubricant stability and oxidation properties. In this study...
eBook Chapter
... ASTM D7542 provides a standardized way to measure the oxidation mass loss rates of graphite in air within a temperature range where chemical kinetics are assumed to dominate. This test was primarily designed to discriminate between graphite candidates for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2021
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7690-4
... types of reactors are analyzed to correlate the characterization to the change of behavior. The metal-oxide microstructure has been examined by analytical techniques such as electron probe microanalysis, three-dimensional focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2020
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7708-6
... Fatigue cracks grow from pores at the surface of components that were produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). In AlSi10Mg components produced by LPBF, large oxides apparently interfere with consolidation of powder into the melt pool, contributing to part porosity; the oxides may also...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2019
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7089-6
... Oxidation stability plays a critical role in the performance and durability of lubricants and fuels. The mechanism of oxidation and methods to control oxidation are reviewed. The key additives used to control oxidation are alkylated diphenylamines, hindered phenolics, sulfurized compounds, zinc...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2018
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7641-6
... Oxidation at high temperature (HT) of cladding materials is expected to be the primary cause of the fuel assemblies' degradation in spent fuel storage pool loss of cooling accidents. Unlike a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a reactor vessel, the presence of air in the atmosphere is expected...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2015
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7529-7
... The metal/oxide interface region in Zircaloy-2 oxidized in autoclave was studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography. In addition to waviness on the micrometer scale the metal/oxide interface was found to have irregularities on a finer scale, and metal islands...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2015
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7529-7
... a correlative microscopy method, i.e., using different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), on the same material and in the same region of the metal–oxide interface have provided useful data regarding...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2015
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7529-7
... such as oxide layer thickness, orientation, and distribution of hydride precipitates and hydrogen content. In the second program, as extension of the irradiated material evaluation of 17 by 17 lead test assemblies (LTA) irradiated in Vandellós II NPP, outer grid strap vanes were removed from a normal operation...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2015
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7529-7
... spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and inert gas fusion techniques and examination of the microstructure in the Zr1Nb cladding wall after high-temperature oxidation. The main goal was to check the validity of the recently proposed Zr1Nb–O phase diagram, or to refine it. The new results...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2015
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7529-7
... The oxidation of zirconium cladding alloys used in nuclear reactors was investigated under the conditions of loss-of-coolant and severe accidents, i.e., at temperatures between 600 and 1600°C and in various atmospheres. The kinetics were parabolic or sub-parabolic as long as the superficially...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2012
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7515-0
.... PWR corrosion oxidation hydrogen pick-up irradiation creep irradiation growth zirconium alloys J_ID: DOI: Date: 18-October-11 Stage: Page: 801 Total Pages: 24 Reprinted from JAI, Vol. 8, No. 5 doi:10.1520/JAI103013 Available online at www.astm.org/JAI V. Chabretou,1 P. B. Hoffmann,2 S. Trapp...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2012
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7507-5
... bonds of the triglyceride structure of vegetable oils typically produce considerably poorer thermal oxidative stability than that achievable with petroleum base-stocks under typical use conditions. This is especially true when a vegetable oil is held in an open tank with agitation and exposure to air...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN-10: 0-8031-4514-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-4514-6
... The pressure tubes that contain the fuel bundles and the primary coolant within the core of a CANDU heavy-water reactor are fabricated from a Zr-2.5Nb alloy with a complex microstructure. During reactor operation the pressure-tube interior surface is slowly oxidized by heavy water and a fraction...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN-10: 0-8031-4514-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-4514-6
... by corrosion. Oxide layer and hydrides precipitation could both induce an increase of the dimensional parameters. The scope of the present study is, regardless of irradiation effect, to quantify and to understand the separate effects of hydrogen and oxide layers on the Zircaloy-4 dimensional changes...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2008
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3493-5
... The current turbine oil oxidation bench tests have been in place for many years. Recently, however, the basestocks used to formulate these lubricants have changed significantly. Traditional basestocks, containing high levels of aromatics and sulfur, have been substantially displaced by more...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2008
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3493-5
... This paper outlines some of the significant changes in turbine oil oxidative stability requirements over the past five to ten years, and illustrates how these have been met using mineral oil-based products with differing antioxidant systems. It also considers possible future requirements and how...