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Keywords: natural gas
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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7068-1
... resources. oil natural gas reserves energy prospects reserve estimation methods energy systems models unconventional resources ...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7068-1
..., and grain-size equivalents among carbonate-rich and siliceous rocks. When hydrocarbons migrate out of the source rock to porous rock capped by an impermeable stratum, they form conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Oil and natural gas extracted directly from these petroleum source rocks and from nearby...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7068-1
... for a significant increase in coal consumption. Technological, economical, environmental, and political developments related to production of oil and natural gas, as well as new energy systems, have decreased the role of coal in the global energy mix. This study puts forth the argument that the main impetus...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Monographs
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2014
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7044-5
... This chapter describes the current status of the energy sector in the U.S. and abroad. Crude oil, coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas, shale gas, nuclear energy, and geothermal energy are discussed in detail regarding their availability and usage. crude oil coal oil shale tar sands...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Monographs
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2014
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7044-5
... gas 13 Elemental Analysis of Gaseous Fuels GASEOUS FUELS CAN INCLUDE NATURAL GAS; HIGH-PURITY ETHANE; ethane/propane mixtures; liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) such as propane, n-butane, and isobutane; and their mixtures. Natural gas as produced from wells is the primary source of most...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2013
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7022-3
... Petroleum and natural gas provide more than 60 % of today's world energy demand and will remain the most important nonrenewable sources of energy for the next few decades. In addition, they provide feedstocks for petrochemical plants for the production of hundreds of different petrochemicals...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2013
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7022-3
... This chapter introduces the feedstocks and products of crude oil and natural gas refineries with a brief summary of biofuels. Classification and characteristics of various reservoir fluids are discussed along with the properties and uses of refinery products including natural gas, liquefied...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2013
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7022-3
..., a comprehensive review of transportation of crude oil and natural gas is presented with detailed discussions that include available and applicable standards, design criteria and constraints, analysis of single-phase flow of liquids and gases and multiphase flow, network modeling and temperature effects...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2013
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7022-3
... demand for the lighter fraction. In addition, demand for natural gas is gradually increasing and hydrogen is proposed to play an important part as an energy carrier whereas the use of biomass will develop, but at a modest level. New techniques for testing that are being developed for fossil-fuel gases...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1997
ISBN-10: 0-8031-2419-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-2419-6
... Materials data are used in all aspects of the development of natural gas resources. Unconventional gas resources require special attention in their development and may benefit from heuristic assessments of the materials data, geological site conditions, and the knowledge base accumulated from...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1992
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1436-2
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1436-4
... Gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) is an emissions control technology for coal fired power plants which uses natural gas and calcium sorbents to reduce NO x and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by 60 and 50 %, respectively. Gas reburning involves injecting natural gas into the boiler...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1973
ISBN-10: 0-8031-6197-2
ISBN: 978-0-8031-6197-9
... The problems associated with crankcase oils for engines using liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel are largely those involving oxidation and excessive ash. Engine oils for propane or natural gas service, therefore, must be formulated to control combustion chamber deposits which may promote...