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Keywords: drift
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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7729-1
... to 20 cycles (one cycle means that the solution passed through the pump once). The results showed that the polymer adjuvant was more sensitive to the shear caused by recirculation, providing droplet spectra more prone to drift. Other adjuvants had less or no significant interference on their performance...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2020
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7700-0
... The aim of this work was to evaluate drift reduction technologies (DRTs) by analyzing the droplet spectrum generated by air induction nozzles spraying solutions containing adjuvants and a mixture of glyphosate and dicamba. The TTI and AIXR 11003 (Teejet), ULD and ULD Max 12003 (Hypro), and MUG...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2019
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7684-3
... Oil-in-water emulsions are known to reduce the volume of driftable fines in many agricultural sprays. These types of drift control are thought to work by causing perforations in the spray close to the exit of the nozzle, where the spray sheet is thick. However, not all oil emulsions provide...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2018
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7665-2
... Improper or suboptimal application techniques can cause decreased weed control and increased environmental contamination. Droplet size is a key factor in pesticide applications in regard to both drift and efficacy. Droplet size can be altered by several application parameters, such as nozzle...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2018
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7665-2
... Concern about pesticide drift has increased dramatically in recent years. An emphasis on increasing spray droplet size to mitigate off-target particle movement has occurred in response to this concern. Venturi nozzles were designed to create coarser droplets by entraining air within the spray...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2018
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7665-2
... Emphasis has been placed on controlling the drift of synthetic auxin herbicides for postemergent applications of field weeds. This body of work evaluated a method for determining the performance of polymer-based drift-reduction adjuvants after repeated exposures to a pumping system. A parent...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7635-5
... and fungicides and compared with regard to the following aspects of their physicochemical characterization: static and dynamic surface tension, contact angle on flat and tilted surface, emulsion stability, and adhesion. The spray droplet size distribution and drift potential were also evaluated. Some...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2016
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7635-5
..., including droplet size distribution, coverage, atomization, droplet velocity, droplet interaction with solid surfaces, and spray drift, is critical to ensure spray systems meet the delivery and efficacy demands of the application. Sophisticated transmittance-based nonintrusive methods such as laser...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2013
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7544-0
... size distribution. Drift modeling of the wind tunnel droplet size results demonstrated little difference between the formulated product and spray adjuvant spray mixtures. However, all treatment solutions significantly reduced modeled drift as compared to the reference treatment. While the field study...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7506-8
... The EPA's proposed Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) low-speed wind tunnel evaluation protocol was tested across a series of modified ASAE reference nozzles. Both droplet size and deposition and flux volume measurements were made downwind from the nozzles operating in the tunnel at airspeeds of 1...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2009
ISBN: 978-0-8031-5523-7
... studies and drift model results. collection efficiency spray sampling flux measurements spray collection drift ASTM Special Technical Publication, Vol. 5, No. 1 Paper ID JAI101493 Available online at www.astm.org Bradley K Fritz1 and W. Clint Hoffmann1 Collection Ef ciencies of Various...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2006
ISBN-10: 0-8031-3496-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3496-6
.... It is therefore proposed that measurement protocols specify a maximum difference in temperature between the spray liquid and surrounding air of 5°C. For boom sprayers it is not possible to predict accurately the risk of drift from droplet size measurements alone because of the complex detrainment mechanisms...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2006
ISBN-10: 0-8031-3496-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3496-6
... m to 1.3 m, the spray flux decreased by 20-fold, demonstrating the dramatic filtering effect that a canopy can have on a spray cloud and will serve as a stimulus for future studies designed to fully characterize the effect of crop canopy on spray movement. spray deposition drift AGDISP...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2006
ISBN-10: 0-8031-3496-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3496-6
... A field study was conducted to determine the influence of adding spray drift control/deposition aid products to tank mix solutions for fixed wing aerial applications. Downwind horizontal drift, vertical drift, and droplet spectra characteristics in a canopy top were collected on water sensitive...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2005
ISBN-10: 0-8031-3485-1
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3485-0
... Thirty-eight aircraft setups were submitted in order to have droplet size and drift analyses performed. Four of the eleven insecticides predicted D v0.5 s were in the 351–400 μm range. Seven of the herbicide setups had predicted D v0.5 s in the 205–250 μm range, while ten D v0.5 s were > 351...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2003
ISBN-10: 0-8031-3453-3
ISBN: 978-0-8031-3453-9
... Agrochemical application is made under the simultaneous demands of efficacious deposit, management of off-site movement including drift, and high time and labor productivity of the operation. Control of nozzle flow rate and droplet size provides the means to maintain efficacy while increasing...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1997
ISBN-10: 0-8031-2469-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-2469-1
... μm, respectively. Similar results, although not as marked, occurred when comparing these two tracers both at 1 g liter -1 . The other tracers showed differences when compared to water and water/adjuvant mixtures. The results are considered in terms of their implications for quantification of drift...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1997
ISBN-10: 0-8031-2469-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-2469-1
... The effects of several spray-boom shield designs and “low-drift” nozzles on spray deposition are presented. Results are based on experiments conducted in a wind tunnel and computer simulations using the same experimental parameters. Performances of all experimental shields were evaluated under...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1993
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1439-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1439-5
... The off-target drift deposits from handgun applications of two spray mixtures (one with an invert emulsion oil and one with a polymeric adjuvant) were compared to that of water, all containing a fluorescent dye tracer. Drift deposit samplers consisting of mylar sheets and air sampler filters...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Select Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1993
ISBN-10: 0-8031-1888-0
ISBN: 978-0-8031-1888-1
... Specific objectives of this study were to determine the effects of various drift retardant chemicals (Direct, Driftgard, Formula 358, Nalco-trol, and Target) on droplet size, spray pattern, and spray drift reduction. The results of this study indicated that, at recommended rates, Nalco-trol...