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Keywords: corrosion
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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... procedures and welding processes to construct the needed equipment. Thousands of corrosion tests were performed in corrosion laboratories and in-service environments to fully document the optimum corrosion properties of zirconium to bring this material to where it is today. This article describes the history...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... In recognition of increasingly challenging fuel-management practices, next-generation cladding materials were developed in the zirconium industry targeting high fuel duties with the goal of improved performance, including corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. In addition...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... Corrosion and hydrogen pickup of zirconium alloys can be life-limiting factors for fuel rods in light water reactors (LWRs). Extensive work has been performed and is still in progress to improve the specification of cladding materials to enhance the performance as well as to further increase...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... Complementary characterization techniques were used to investigate two commercial Zr-Nb alloys exposed in reactor to understand how the corrosion process is affected by changes in the oxidation state of niobium. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis was carried out to better understand...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... Significant cost benefits through plant simplification can be achieved if a soluble boron-free lithiated primary water chemistry can be demonstrated to be viable for small modular reactor operation. However, the mechanisms of accelerated corrosion behavior of the zirconium alloy clad material...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... precharged with hydrogen, adding nickel to accelerate the hydrogen pickup, and altering coupon dimensions (thickness) to reduce the volume. Results show that the previously observed out-of-reactor effect of increasing hydrogen content above solubility leading to an increased corrosion rate in Zircaloy-4...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7737-6
... oxidation kinetics because niobium solute doping in the oxide is known to significantly affect the alloy oxidation rate. corrosion irradiation atom probe tomography (APT) 474 ZIRCONIUM IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY: 20TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM STP 1645, 2023 / available online at www.astm.org / doi...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2023
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7747-5
... High humidity and corrosive indoor environments in natatoriums in cold climates pose unique risks and challenges due to moisture condensation in roofs. Without the existence of standards for roof design, based on a simple, steady-state dew-point analysis, the common practice is to employ...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... A review of thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of electrochemical reactions that describe corrosion processes is presented, followed by a description of traditional and more recently developed laboratory methods for a selection of applications. The areas of focus are as follows: (1) Traditional...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... The petroleum production environment provides a unique challenge for corrosion testing in that it is not a controlled chemistry, as a chemical process environment, but is an environment provided by nature, with all the potential variability in phase distribution and chemical composition...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... As a reactive and active-passive metal, titanium's exceptional corrosion resistance and passivity in a vast range of environments stems from the formation and maintenance of of a highly stable and protective titanium oxide surface film. Understanding both the environmental and metallurgical...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... alone are not adequate without rational application and interpretation. corrosion protective nonmetallic coatings testing specifications corrosion rates were higher for some of the MMCs. More recent corrosion studies have also added additional insight to corrosion mechanisms of copper MMCs...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are metals that are usually reinforced with ceramic fibers or particles to enhance or customize properties such as stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, friction, and wear resistance. MMCs, however, are generally more prone to corrosion...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... Corrosion monitoring is an integral part of any water treatment program. It is used to determine treatment effectiveness and to establish the optimum level of chemical treatment that is most effective, not necessarily the cheapest per pound. This article describes the various monitoring methods...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... Corrosion of the highway network is an issue that transportation agencies are facing all over the world. For example, in 2012, the public United States road network was more than 4 million miles long and utilized over 600,000 bridges at a total cost of more than $220 billion in highway-related...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... Corrosion of aircraft structures has plagued the airline industry since the first use of metals in aircraft manufacture. It is costly both in unscheduled downtime and maintenance. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) reported in 1983 that corrosion costs the airlines between $8...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... Military equipment must be designed to operate in various exposure conditions; therefore, the test programs evaluating them must ensure that the corrosion resistance of base materials and assemblies will be sufficient. These conditions include rain, humidity, bowing/settling sand, debris, salt...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... for handling of foods that are prepared and served at room ambient (e.g. salads) or refrigerated environments. It is significant that these advances are applicable to selective materials that resist corrosion and proper selection criteria are to be applied. Corrosion management specific to caning industry...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Manuals
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2022
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7134-3
... This chapter provides an overview of standard corrosion testing procedures for freshwater systems. Freshwater can be defined simply as water that is not salty. Brackish water as defined by the dictionary is water having a somewhat salty taste. A more quantitative definition of brackish water...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 2021
ISBN: 978-0-8031-7690-4
... Despite more than 60 years of research and development into the topics of corrosion, hydrogen absorption, and hydrogen migration in zirconium alloys, significant gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of many of the key processes and factors that govern and differentiate the in-reactor...