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Keywords: concretes
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eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1986
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0453-7
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0453-2
... granulated slag, and lesser amounts of ground limestone or silica fume, were tested for flow, strength development, and drying shrinkage. Three CPSD blended cements (two with Class F fly ash and one with slag, all with ground limestone) were selected for mortar and concrete tests along with two normally...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1985
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0443-X
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0443-3
... The development of laboratory test methods for determining potential corrosion of steel imbedded in portland cement mortars is described in detail. Examples are given of the effects of chemical admixtures on the passive iron hydroxide protective layer surrounding reinforcing steel in concrete...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1980
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0325-5
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0325-2
... Composite materials such as concrete usually are not composed of materials of the same coefficient of thermal expansion, and, therefore, temperature changes cause stresses in their components. In the paper, two simple equations are derived—one for tensile stress in binding material...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1980
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0316-6
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0316-0
... the usefulness of a two-probe method, which can be used without connecting to the metal framework of the bridge. An area large enough to contain active and passive regions must be surveyed. A new series of reinforced concrete decks has been cast with and without calcium nitrite inhibitor to confirm earlier...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1979
ISBN-10: 0-8031-4495-4
ISBN: 978-0-8031-4495-8
... The major objective of this investigation was to observe directly the formation or propagation of microcracks in concrete by use of the scanning electron microscope both before and after application of compressive stress fields. Concrete, under compression, fails when macrocracks have...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete has produced a problem of catastrophic proportions in the highway field. Bridge decks in the snow belt areas of the country, subject to heavy application of deicer salts in response to the public's demand for year-round bare pavements, frequently start...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... corrosion of reinforcing steel in concretes exposed to chlorides. A review of both published experimental data and some theoretical considerations are presented to show that not only the amount of tricalcium aluminate present but also its crystallographic type and the source of chloride are necessary...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... The present state of knowledge regarding the action of chloride, principally calcium chloride, in reinforced concrete is reviewed, with special emphasis on its effect on the reinforcing steel. The reactions through which calcium chloride accelerates the set and strength of portland cement...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Concrete failure can develop from many causes, for example, thermal gradients, fatigue, insufficient cover, admixtures, rebar material, and exposure location. Cracking of concrete in itself was not found to be detrimental but could lead to spalling and structural deterioration. Metallic-coated...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... unprotected steel. Tests were performed on bridge structures ranging in age from 3 to 23 years. corrosion concretes reinforcing steels galvanized materials chlorides nomographs A. R. Cook^ and S. F. Radtke' Recent Research on Galvanized Steel for Reinforcennent of Concrete REFERENCE: Cook, A. R...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Concrete bridge deterioration is a serious problem in Pennsylvania. The causes of cracking, scaling, and spalling are related to prevalent design and construction practices. Although improved criteria and specifications will help solve the problem, new materials and techniques are needed...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Intrusion of moisture and deicing chemicals into reinforced concrete bridge decks results in premature deterioration of the concrete and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. Vermont's search for an effective waterproofing system which would seal bridge decks and thus prevent intrusion...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... of full-scale bridge deck production. corrosion concretes reinforcing steels bridge decks deterioration deicers epoxy coatings W. p. KilareskV Epoxy Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Reinforcennent Steel REFERENCE: Kilareski, W. P., "Epoxy Coatings for Corrosion Protection...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... The scarcity of good aggregate in Japan led to an investigation of the use of a corrosion inhibitor for reinforced concrete. Corrosion current measured on small test specimens soaked in limewater for one day with an impressed voltage of + 400 mV with respect to the saturated calomel electrode...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... The rapid deterioration of concrete bridge decks as a result of the increased use of deicing salts is one of the most severe problems facing the highway industry today. One possible solution to the problem is the use of concrete polymer materials. The materials of prime interest are polymer...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Premature failure of portland cement concrete bridge decks is of national concern, particularly in those areas where chloride residues accumulate in the concrete from winter deicing operations. West Virginia's research and field usage indicates that the application of a relatively thin (1 to 2...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Low-slump, high-quality concrete is used in Iowa for partial-depth patching and resurfacing of bridge decks. All unsound concrete is removed, as well as a minimum of ¼ in. (0.054 m) of the remaining sound concrete surface. Sand cement grout is scrubbed onto dry, prepared deck immediately prior...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... Chloride-induced corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete is a major cause of premature concrete deterioration. This presentation describes the results of an investigation sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (Project 12–13) into the use of cathodic protection...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of cathodic protection as a means of extending the life span of reinforced concrete bridge decks. The cost of cathodic protection is compared to the cost of other methods of rehabilitating such structures. Also included is a brief review...
eBook Chapter
Series: ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Publisher: ASTM International
Published: 1977
ISBN-10: 0-8031-0301-8
ISBN: 978-0-8031-0301-6
... A two-component asphalt-extended urethane membrane was developed which satisfies the requirements demanded of a waterproofing membrane for protecting reinforcing steel in concrete bridge decks from corrosion. A technique for application of the membrane is described which essentially eliminates...