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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Symposium on Structural Sandwich Construction
By
Committee C-19>
Committee C-19>
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-6070-4
ISBN:
978-0-8031-6070-5
No. of Pages:
120
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1952

This paper was prepared by Mr. Markwardt for presentation at several ASTM district meetings as well as the Symposium on Structural Sandwich Construction of the Fifty-fourth Annual Meeting. Because it presents a broad, over-all view of this new field of composite structural materials, it is included with the more specialized technical papers, including those by other members of the Forest Products Laboratory, which are: Sandwich Construction in the Elastic Range, by H. W. March; Strength of Sandwich Construction, by C. B. Norris; and Fabrication Techniques for Structural Sandwich Construction, by B. G. Heebink.

1.
Chitty
,
Floyd
1948
. “
Radiography as a Control in Aluminum Alloy Spotwelding and Fabrication of Plastic Honeycomb Panels for Aircraft
,”
Non-destructive Testing
, p. 12, Spring No.
2.
Hoff
,
N. J.
and
Mautner
,
S. E.
1944
. “
Sandwich Construction
,”
Inst. Aero. Sciences
.
3.
Hoff
,
N. J.
and
Mautner
,
S. E.
1945
. “
The Buckling of Sandwich Type Panels
,”
Inst. Aero. Sciences
.
4.
Huisman
,
George R.
1948
. “
Fabrication Control of Low-Pressure Laminates for Structural Parts in Aircraft
,”
North American Aviation
,
Pacific Plastics
.
5.
Institute of Aeronautical Sciences
1948
.
Theory and Practice of Sandwich Construction in Aircraft—A Symposium, Preprint 165
.
I.A.S.
,
New York
.
6.
Korsbeid
,
John F.
1947
.
Philosophy for Design for Sandwich-Type Structure
,” Vol.
1
, No.
3
,
SAE Quarterly Trans
 0097-5389.
7.
Libove
,
Charles
and
Batdorf
,
S. B.
1948
. “
A General Small-Deflection Theory for Flat Sandwich Plates
,”
National Advisory Committee Aeronautics
, Tech. Note 1526, 53 p.,
illus. Washington
.
8.
Olsen
,
G. A.
1948
. “
Honeycomb Laminates
,” Reissue Special Rept. No. 35A47,
Bakelite Corp.
,
Bloomfield, N. J.
9.
Reid
,
David G.
(n.d) “
Balsa Wood as an End-Grain Core Material in Sandwich Construction
,”
Chance Vought Aircraft
.
10.
Reissner
,
Eric
1949
. “
Small Bending and Stretching of Sandwich Type Shells
,”
National Advisory Committee Aeronautics
 Tech. Note 1832, 89 p.,
illus. Washington
.
11.
Troxell
,
W. W.
and
Engel
,
H. C.
1947
. “
Sandwich Materials; Metal Faces Stabilized by Honeycomb Cores
.”
SAE Transactions
 0096-736X,
1
(
3
):429-440.
12.
U. S. Air Force
1941
.
AMC. Conference with Chrysler Corp. Representatives on Resin Adhesives. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. EXP-M-51/STR210, Add. 11,
Wright Field
,
Ohio
.
13.
U. S. Air Force
1943
.
AMC. Conference Regarding Cycle-Welding Wood-to-Metal Primary Structures of the C-62 Airplane CG-13 Gliders. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-51-4537-1-5,
Wright Field
,
Ohio
14.
U. S. Air Force
1943
.
AMC. Dow Low Density Polystrene Q-103, Styron Foam. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-56-M4595, Add. 1,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
15.
U. S. Air Force
1943
.
AMC. Du Pont Low Density 3F Cellulose Acetate, Type X. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-56-M4595,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
16.
U. S. Air Force
1943
.
AMC. Synthetic Rigid Type Foams. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-56-M4690,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
17.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
Accelerated Weathering of Formica High Strength Paper Base Phenolic Laminated Sheet. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-56-M4283, Add. 4,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
18.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
AMC. Evaluation of Sandwich Combinations for Aircraft Structures. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-51-45119-1-2,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
19.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
AMC. Laminated Glass Fiber Plastic Fuselage. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No ENG-51-4536-1-27,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
20.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
AMC. Molded Glass Fiber Sandwich Fuselage for BT-15 Airplane. AAF. Tech. Rept.
No. 5159,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
21.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
AMC. Plastic Parts, Molded, Gen. Spec. for Inspection. AAF. Spec.
No. 12043,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
22.
U. S. Air Force
1944
.
AMC. Static Test of Cycleweld Flap for B-26C Airplane. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. ENG-51-4537-1-7; Add. 1,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
23.
U. S. Air Force
1945
.
AMC. Evaluation of Synthetic Core Materials Sandwich Type Aircraft Structures. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAL2-45119-1-11,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
24.
U. S. Air Force
1945
.
AMC. Measured Strains Fiber Glass Wing. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAC-4536-1-33, Add. 1,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
25.
U. S. Air Force
1945
.
AMC. Plaskon Glass Cloth BT-15 AFT Fuselage Monocoque Section. Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAL2-4536-1-30,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
26.
U. S. Air Force
1945
.
AMC. Plastic; Molded Sandwich Construction for Radomes. AAF Spec.
No. R-12046-A,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
27.
U. S. Air Force
1945
.
AMC. Rubber: Synthetic, Cellular Hard Board (For Sandwich Construction)
. AAF Spec. No. R26603,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
28.
U. S. Air Force
1946
.
AMC. Effect of Water on Plastic Sandwich Construction Panels
.
Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAM-M5034, Add. 4,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
29.
U. S. Air Force
1946
.
AMC. Low Temperature Tests of BT-13 Aircraft 1945–1946
.
Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEST-167,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
30.
U. S. Air Force
1946
.
AMC. Structural Tests on Glass Cloth Sandwich Wing for AT-6 Airplane
.
Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAC12-4536-1-33, Add. 2,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
31.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
AMC. Development of AMC AT-6C Glass Outer Wing Panel
.
AAF. Tech. Rept.
No. 5576,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
32.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
AMC. Structural Tests on Air Materiel Command Fiberglas Wing for AT-6 Air-plane
.
Eng. Div. Memo. Rept. Serial
No. TSEAC12-4536-1-33, Add. 3,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
33.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Adhesive Bonding Metal Aircraft Parts
;
General Spec. For. A.F. Spec. —
,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
34.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Adhesive, Metal to Metal, Structural. A.F. Spec.
14164,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
35.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Core Material; Laminated Glass Fabric Base, Plastic Honeycomb. A.F. Spec.
12050,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
36.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Plastic Materials; Laminated Glass Fabric Base, Low Pressure Molded. A.F. Spec.
12051,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
37.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Plastic Molded Sandwich Construction, Honeycomb Core. A.F. Spec.
12051,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
38.
U. S. Air Force
1947
.
Plastic Parts; Aircraft Exterior, General Requirements for Rain Erosion Protection of. A.F. Spec.
12051,
Wright Field
, Ohio.
39.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1944
.
The Flexural Rigidity of a Rectangular Strip of Sandwich Construction—Comparison between Mathematical Analysis and Results of Tests. Rept
. No. 1505-A, Madison, Wis.
40.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1944
.
Results of Some Tests on Low-Density Materials. Rept
. No. 1509, Madison, Wis.
41.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1945
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: Various Types of Edge Conditions. Rept.
No. 1525, Madison, Wis.
42.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1946
.
Design Criteria for Long, Curved Panels of Sandwich Construction in Axial Compression. Rept.
No. 1558, Madison, Wis.
43.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1946
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Cellular Cellulose Acetate Core Material in Shear. Rept.
No. 1559, Madison, Wis.
44.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1946
.
Impact Resistance of Three Core Materials and Six Sandwich Constructions as Measured by Falling Ball Tests. Rept.
No. 1543, Madison, Wis.
45.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1946
.
Tensile Strength at Elevated Temperature of Glued Joints between Aluminum and End-Grain Balsa. Rept.
No. 1548,
Madison, Wis.
46.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1946
.
Weight and Dimensional Stability of Three Low-Density Core Materials. Rept.
No. 1544, Madison, Wis.
47.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: The Buckling of Flat Sandwich Panels with Edges Simply Supported. (End-Grain Balsa Cores and Facings of Aluminum and Glass Cloth Laminate.) Rept.
No. 1525-A, Madison, Wis.
48.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: Buckling of Flat Sandwich Panels with Loaded Edges Simply Supported and the Remaining Edges Clamped. (Cores of End-Grain Balsa or Cellular Cellulose Acetate and Facings of Aluminum or Glass Cloth Laminate.) Rept.
No. 1525-B, Madison, Wis.
49.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: Buckling of Flat Sandwich Panels with Loaded Edges Clamped and the Remaining Edges Simply Supported. (Cores of End-Grain Balsa or Cellular Cellulose Acetate and Facings of Aluminum or Glass Cloth Laminate.)
Rept. No. 1525-C, Madison, Wis.
50.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: Buckling of Flat Sandwich Panels with All Edges Clamped. (Cores of End-Grain Balsa or Cellular Cellulose Acetate and Facings of Aluminum or Glass Cloth Laminae.)
Rept. No. 1525-D, Madison, Wis.
51.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Durability of Low-Density Core Materials and Sandwich Panels of the Aircraft Type as Determined by Laboratory Tests and Exposure to the Weather
. Rept. No. 1573, Madison, Wis.
52.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Fabrication of Lightweight Sandwich Panels of the Aircraft Type
. Rept. No. 1574, Madison, Wis.
53.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Aluminum Face and Paper Honeycomb Core Sandwich Material Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-A, Madison, Wis.
54.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Investigation of Methods of Inspecting Bonds Between Cores and Faces of Sandwich Panels of the Aircraft Type
. Rept. No. 1569, Madison, Wis.
55.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Preliminary Report on the Strength of Flat Sandwich Plates in Edgewise Compression
. Rept. No. 1561, Madison, Wis.
56.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Stability of a Few Curved Panels Subjected to Shear
. Rept. No. 1571, Madison, Wis.
57.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1947
.
Stability of a Few Flat Sandwich Panels Subjected to Shear
. Rept. No. 1560, Madison, Wis.
58.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
.
1948
.
Buckling Loads of Flat Sandwich Panels in Compression: The Buckling of Flat Sandwich Panels with Either all Edges Simply Supported or All Edges Clamped. (Cores of Paper Honeycomb and Facings of Glass Cloth Laminate.)
Rept. No. 1525-E, Madison, Wis.
59.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Effect of Shear Deformation in the Core of A Flat Rectangular Sandwich Panel. 1. Buckling Under Compression End Load. 2. Deflection Under Uniform Transverse Load
. Rept. No. 1583, Madison, Wis.
60.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Stiffness of Flat Panels of Sandwich Construction Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Loads Normal to Their Surfaces—Simply Supported Edges
. Rept. No. 1583-A, Madison, Wis.
61.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Aluminum Face and End Grain Balsa Sandwich Material Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-B, Madison, Wis.
62.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Fiberglas-Honeycomb Core Material with Fiberglas-Laminate or Aluminum Facings, Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-C, Madison, Wis.
63.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Fiberglas-Laminate Face and End-Grain Balsa Core Sandwich Material Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-D, Madison, Wis.
64.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Cellular-Hard-Rubber Core Material with Aluminum or Fiberglas-Laminate Facings, Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-E, Madison, Wis.
65.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Cellular Cellulose Acetate Core Material with Aluminum or Fiberglas-Laminate Facings, Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-F, Madison, Wis.
66.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Methods of Test for Determining Strength Properties of Core Material for Sandwich Construction at Normal Temperatures
. Rept. No. 1555, Madison, Wis.
67.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Methods for Conducting Mechanical Tests of Sandwich Construction at Normal Temperatures
. Rept. No. 1556, Madison, Wis.
68.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1948
.
Repair of Aircraft Sandwich Constructions
. Rept. No. 1584, Madison, Wis.
69.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Creep Tests on Sandwich Constructions Subjected to Shear at Normal Temperatures
. Rept. No. 1806, Madison, Wis.
70.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Durability of Low-Density Core Materials and Sandwich Panels of the Aircraft Type as Determined by Laboratory Tests and Exposure to the Weather. (2nd part of a continuing study.)
Rept. No. 1573-A, Madison, Wis.
71.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Effect of Defects on Strength of Aircraft-Type Sandwich Panels
. Rept. No. 1809, Madison, Wis.
72.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Effect of Elevated Temperatures on the Strength of Small Specimens of Sandwich Construction of the Aircraft Type: Tests Conducted Immediately after the Test Temperature was Reached
. Rept. No. 1804, Madison, Wis.
73.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Effect of Span-Depth Ratio and Thickness on the Mechanical Properties of a Typical Glass-Fabric-Base Plastic Laminate as Determined by Bending Tests
. Rept. No. 1807, Madison, Wis.
74.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Elastic Stability of the Facings of Flat Sandwich Panels When Subjected to Combined Edgewise Stresses
. Rept. No. 1802, Madison, Wis.
75.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Fatigue of Sandwich Constructions for Aircraft: Fiberglas-Laminate Facings and Paper Honeycomb Core Sandwich Materials Tested in Shear
. Rept. No. 1559-G, Madison, Wis.
76.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Flexural Rigidity of a Rectangular Strip of Sandwich Construction
. Rept. No. 1505, Madison, Wis.
77.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Strength of Aluminum Lap Joints at Elevated Temperatures (Tests Conducted Immediately after the Temperature was Reached)
. Rept. No. 1808, Madison, Wis.
78.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Strength Properties of Honeycomb Core Materials
. Rept. No. 1805, Madison, Wis.
79.
U. S. Forest Products Laboratory
1949
.
Wrinkling of the Facings of Sandwich Constructions Subjected to Edgewise Compression
. Rept. No. 1810, Madison, Wis.
80.
U. S. Navy
1944
.
Sandwich Construction—Preliminary Analysis of Flat Sandwich Panels in End Compression (Without Edge Support) and Flexure
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. II.
81.
U. S. Navy
1945
.
Sandwich Construction—Analysis of Flat Panels in End Compression (With Simply Supported Edges)
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. VI.
82.
U. S. Navy
1945
.
Sandwich Construction—Preliminary Physical Properties of Balsa Wood. BurAer
. Rept. No. NAF 2408, Pt. I.
83.
U. S. Navy
1945
.
Sandwich Construction—Preliminary Test Results of Flat Metalfaced Panels in End Compression (Without Additional Support)
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. IV.
84.
U. S. Navy
1945
.
Sandwich Construction—End Compression Tests of Flat Panels with Stiffened Cores
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. VII.
85.
U. S. Navy
1945
.
Sandwich Construction—Flexural and Shear Tests of Stiffened Flat Panels
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. VIII.
86.
U. S. Navy
1946
.
Sandwich Construction—Analysis of Flat Panels in End Compression (For Various Types of Edge Conditions)
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2408, Pt. X.
87.
U. S. Navy
1946
.
Model F4U-4 Horizontal Tail Surfaces of Sandwich and Fiberglas Construction Static Tests of Two Elevator Assemblies
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2452, Pt. I.
88.
U. S. Navy
1946
.
Model F4U Horizontal Tail Surfaces of Sandwich and Fiberglas Construction—Static Tests of Two Elevator Assemblies
. BurAer. Rept. No. 2452, Pt. II.
89.
U. S. Navy
1948
.
Fabrication of Sandwich Structure Helmet Shell with Steam Heated Mold
. NAES Rept. No. AML 13022-49, Pt. III.
90.
U. S. Navy
1948
.
Fiberglas-Polyester-Resin Laminations; Evaluation and Development; Description of Fabricating Methods
. NAES Rept. No. AML NAM AE-440008, Pt. I.
91.
U. S. Navy
1948
.
Manufacture of Helmet Shell Mold For Sandwich Structure Shell
. NAES Rept. No. AML 13022-49, Pt. 1.
92.
U. S. Navy
1949
. SPEC. MIL-A-928 (Aer).
Adhesives; Synthetic Resin (for Clad Aluminum Alloy to Wood)
.
93.
U. S. Navy
1948
.
Determination of the Merits of Honeycomb-Type Sandwich Constructions for Naval Shipboard Use
. New York Naval Shipyard Rept. No. 5068.
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