Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry: 20th International Symposium
Editor
Suresh K. Yagnik
Suresh K. Yagnik
Symposium Chairperson and STP Editor
1
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
,
Palo Alto, CA,
US
Search for other works by this author on:
Michael Preuss
Michael Preuss
Symposium Chair and STP Editor
2
The University of Manchester Manchester
,
GB
;
Monash University
,
Clayton/Melbourne,
AU
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN:
978-0-8031-7737-6
No. of Pages:
928
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2023

Notched specimens with high or low constraint were tested in situ with a scanning electron microscope using hydrided Zircaloy-4 to develop an understanding of the mechanism for fracture initiation and propagation. High-resolution electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify the texture and residual stresses near the hydrides prior to testing. A digital stereoimaging technique was used to measure the local strain distribution during testing. Fracture of nonhydrided Zircaloy-4 has been observed to occur by a process of void nucleation, growth, and coalescence that was described using a modified Rice-Tracey dependence for failure strain on triaxiality. For hydrided materials, it was observed that the cracking of select hydrides occurs at local regions of high strain when the macroscopic stresses are elastic. The tendency for hydride fracture is believed to be dependent on local residual stresses and texture. The microcracks nucleated from the hydrides are observed to be blunted by the α grains, and the regions between the hydrides are observed to fracture by a process similar to the nonhydrided material. A micromechanical model is developed to predict the failure strain for hydrided Zircaloy-4 that accounts for the effect of residual stress from hydride formation and stress state.

1.
Honniball
P. D.
,
Cogez
L.
, and
Gee
C. F
, “
Influence of Hydrides upon the Fatigue Initiation Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-2
,” in
Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry: 19th International Symposium
, ed.
Motta
A. T.
and
Yagnik
S. K.
(
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
,
2021
), 365–384,
2.
Adamson
R.
,
Coleman
K.
,
Mahmood
T.
, and
Rudling
P.
, Mechanical Testing of Zirconium Alloys, ZIRAT-18 Special Topics Report (Mölnlycke, Sweden:
ANT International
,
2013
).
3.
Kreyns
P. H.
,
Bourgeois
W. F.
,
White
C. J.
,
Charpentier
P. L
,
Kammenzind
B. F.
, and
Franklin
D. G.
, “
Embrittlement of Reactor Core Materials
,” in
Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry: Eleventh International Symposium
, ed.
Bradley
E. R.
and
Sabol
G. P.
(
West Conshohocken, PA
:
ASTM International
,
1996
), 758–782,
4.
Hong
T. L.
,
Brachet
J.-C.
,
Crépin
J.
, and
Le Saux
M.
, “
Combined Effects of Temperature and of High Hydrogen and Oxygen Contents on the Mechanical Behavior of a Zirconium Alloy upon Cooling from the βZr Phase Temperature Range
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
554
(
2021
): 153069,
5.
Liu
R.
,
Mostafa
R.
, and
Liu
Z.
, “
Modeling of Structural Failure of Zircaloy Claddings Induced by Multiple Hydride Cracks
,”
International Journal of Fracture
213
(
2018
): 171–191.
6.
Bertino
G.
,
Meyer
G.
, and
Ipina
J. P.
, “
Degradation of the Mechanical Properties of Zircaloy-4 due to Hydrogen Embrittlement
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
322
(
2003
): 57–65.
7.
Zhang
Y.
and
Song
X.
, “
In-Situ Tensile Deformation of Zircaloy-4 Sheets with Different Hydrogen Contents at RT and 300°C
,”
Materials Science and Engineering: A
811
(
2021
): 141093,
8.
Cockeram
B. V.
and
Hollenbeck
J. L.
, “
The Roles of Stress-State on the Deformation and Fracture Mechanism of Hydrided and Non-Hydrided Zircaloy-4
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
467
(
2015
): 9–31.
9.
Cockeram
B. V.
and
Chan
K. S.
, “
In Situ Studies and Modeling of the Deformation and Fracture Mechanism for Wrought Zircaloy-4 and Zircaloy-2 as a Function of Stress-State
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
434
(
2013
): 97–123.
10.
Cockeram
B. V.
and
Chan
K. S.
, “
In Situ Studies and Modeling the Fracture of Zircaloy-4
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
393
(
2009
): 387–408.
11.
Wilkinson
A. J.
,
Dingley
D. J.
, and
Meaden
G.
, “
Strain Mapping Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction
,” in
Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science
, 2nd ed., ed.
Schwartz
A. J.
,
Kumar
M.
,
Adams
B. L.
, and
Field
D. P.
(
New York, NY
:
Springer
,
2009
): 231–249.
12.
Franke
E. A.
,
Wenzel
D. J.
, and
Davidson
D. L.
, “
Measurement of Microdisplacements by Machine Vison Photogrammetry (DISMAP)
,”
Review of Scientific Instruments
62
, no.
5
(
1991
): 1270–1279.
13.
Nicolella
D. P.
,
Nicholls
A. E.
,
Lankford
J.
, and
Davy
D. T.
, “
Machine Vision Photogrammetry: A Technique for Measurement of Microstructural Strain in Cortical Bone
,”
Journal of Biomechanics
34
(
2001
): 135–139.
14.
Puls
M. P.
,
Shi
S.-Q.
, and
Rabier
J.
, “
Experimental Studies of Mechanical Properties of Solid Zirconium Hydrides
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
336
(
2005
): 73–80.
15.
Bai
J. B.
,
Prioul
C.
, and
Francois
D.
, “
Hydride Embrittlement in Zircaloy-4 Plate: Part I. Influence of Microstructure on the Hydride Embrittlement in Zircaloy-4 at 20°C and 350°C
,”
Metallurgical Transactions A
25
(
1994
): 1185–1197.
16.
Leitch
B. W.
and
Puls
M. P.
, “
Finite Element Calculations of the Accommodation Energy of a Misfitting Precipitate in an Elastic-Plastic Matrix
,”
Metallurgical Transactions A
23
(
1992
): 797–806.
17.
Singh
R. N.
,
Khandelwal
H. K.
,
Bind
A. K.
,
Sunil
S.
, and
Stahle
P.
, “
Influence of Stress Field of Expanding and Contracting Plate Shaped Precipitate on Hydride Embrittlement in Zr-Alloys
,”
Materials Science and Engineering: A
579
(
2013
): 157–163.
18.
Cinbiz
M. N.
,
Koss
D. A.
,
Motta
A. T.
,
Park
J. S.
, and
Almer
J. D.
, “
In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Study of Hydrides in Zircaloy-4 during Thermomechanical Cycling
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
487
(
2017
): 247–259.
19.
Shiman
O. V.
,
Balogh
L.
, and
Daymond
M. R.
, “
A Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Study of Strain and Microstrain Distributions in α-Zr Caused by Hydride Precipitation
,”
Surfaces and Interfaces
17
(
2019
): 100388,
20.
Barrow
A. T.
W.
,
Korinek
A.
, and
Daymond
M. R.
, “
Evaluating Zirconium-Zirconium Hydride Interfacial Strains by Nano-Beam Electron Diffraction
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
432
(
2013
): 366–370.
21.
Qin
W.
,
Kiran Kumar
N. A.
P.
,
Szpunar
J. A.
, and
Kozinski
J.
, “
Intergranular δ-Hydride Nucleation and Orientation in Zirconium Alloys
,”
Acta Materialia
59
(
2011
): 7010–7021.
22.
Ramberg
A. W.
and
Osgood
W. R.
,
Determination of Stress-Strain Curves by Three Parameters
, NACA Technical Note No. 503 (
Washington, DC
:
National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics
,
1941
).
23.
Shi
S.-Q.
and
Puls
M. P.
, “
Criteria for Fracture Initiation at Hydrides in Zirconium Alloys I. Sharp Crack Tip
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
208
(
1994
): 232–242.
24.
Chan
K. S.
, “
A Micromechanical Model for Predicting Hydride Embrittlement in Nuclear Fuel Cladding Material
,”
Journal of Nuclear Materials
227
(
1996
): 220–236.
25.
Chan
K. S.
, “
A Fracture Model for Hydride-Induced Embrittlement
,”
Acta Metallurgica Materialia
43
, no.
12
(
1995
): 4325–4335.
26.
Rice
J. B.
and
Tracey
D. M.
, “
On the Ductile Enlargement of Voids in Triaxial Stress Fields
,”
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
217
(
1969
): 201–217.
27.
Bridgeman
P. W.
,
Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture
(
New York
:
McGraw-Hill
,
1952
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal