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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Advances in Cement Analysis and Concrete Petrography
By
Derek Cong
Derek Cong
Symposium Chair and STP Editor
1
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
,
Austin, TX,
US
Search for other works by this author on:
Don Broton
Don Broton
Symposium Chair and STP Editor
2
CTL Group
,
Skokie, IL,
US
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN:
978-0-8031-7671-3
No. of Pages:
214
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2019

ASTM recently adopted Standard C1797, Specification for Ground Calcium Carbonate and Aggregate Mineral Fillers for Use in Hydraulic Cement Concrete, which outlines the compositional requirements of mineral fillers for use in concrete. Ground calcium carbonate (GCC) currently is used in self-consolidating concrete and concrete masonry units, among other applications, and the demand for and use of calcium carbonate mineral filler is only expected to increase. Currently, however, there is no reliable and cost-effective way to quantitatively determine the concentration of GCC in hardened concrete, which will become an important issue in quality control of concrete as the use of these materials increases. This paper is focused on the development of such a method using petrographic techniques. GCC can be accurately identified in hardened cement paste based on the unique optical properties, and the content of GCC can be determined via point count on thin sections under a petrographic microscope. By performing point count on thin sections of laboratory-prepared mortar and concrete samples with known GCC contents, empirical equations are developed that allow petrographers to estimate the GCC content relatively accurately and efficiently. Experimental details, including the implementation of the point count method and statistical analysis of the data, are discussed. The significance of the method and representative case studies of concrete with different compositions and mix proportions are presented.

1.
ASTM C150-17,
Standard Specification for Portland Cement
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
, www.astm.org
2.
ASTM C595-17,
Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
, www.astm.org
3.
ASTM C1797-16,
Standard Specification for Ground Calcium Carbonate and Aggregate Mineral Fillers for Use in Hydraulic Cement Concrete
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
4.
Bentz
,
D. P.
,
Irassar
,
E. F.
,
Bucher
,
B. E.
, and
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Limestone Fillers Conserve Cement; Part 1: An Analysis Based on Powers’ Model
,”
Concr. Int.
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5.
Ling
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Kwan
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Adding Limestone Fines as Cementitious Paste Replacement to Lower Carbon Footprint of SCC
,”
Constr. Build. Mater.
, Vol.
111
(
Supp. C
),
2016
, pp. 326–336.
6.
Ali
,
M. B.
,
Saidur
,
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, and
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A Review on Emission Analysis in Cement Industries
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7.
Chen
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Constr. Build. Mater.
, Vol.
56
(
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9.
BS EN 197-1,
Cement, Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements
,
British Standards Institution
,
London, UK
,
2011
.
10.
ASTM C1324-15,
Standard Test Method for Examination and Analysis of Hardened Masonry Mortar
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2015
, www.astm.org
11.
FHWA-HRT-04-150,
Petrographic Methods of Examining Hardened Concrete: A Petrographic Manual
,
Federal Highway Administration, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
,
McLean, VA
,
2006
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12.
Stutzman
,
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Cement Clinker Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy
,”
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2
,
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Pool
,
A.
and
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,
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,
Concrete Petrography: A Handbook of Investigative Techniques
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
,
2016
.
14.
ASTM C856-17,
Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
, www.astm.org
15.
McCanta
,
M. C.
,
Dyar
,
M. D.
, and
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,
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, “
Extracting Bulk Rock Properties from Microscale Measurements: Subsampling and Analytical Guidelines
,”
GSA Today
, Vol.
27
,
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, pp. 4–9.
16.
Cong
,
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, “
Relationship between Paste Volume and Cementitious Materials Content in Hardened Concrete
,”
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, Vol.
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, No.
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,
2006
, pp. 1–9,
17.
Fox
,
J. M.
and
Miller
,
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, “
The Line Method for Petrographic Determination of the Quantity of Fly Ash and Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Hardened Concrete and Blended Cement
,”
J. ASTM Int.
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,
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, pp. 1–9,
18.
ASTM C457-16,
Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
19.
ASTM C618-17,
Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
, www.astm.org
20.
ASTM C778-17,
Standard Specification for Standard Sand
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
, www.astm.org
21.
ASTM C33-16,
Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
22.
ASTM C305-14,
Standard Practice for Mechanical Mixing of Hydraulic Cement Pastes and Mortars of Plastic Consistency
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2014
, www.astm.org
23.
ASTM C109-16,
Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2 in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens)
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
24.
ASTM C642-13,
Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2013
, www.astm.org
25.
ASTM C192-16,
Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
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