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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Concrete Pipe and Box Culverts
By
John J. Meyer
John J. Meyer
Symposium Chairperson and STP Editor
1
Consultant
,
Wales
,
WI,
US
Search for other works by this author on:
Josh Beakley
Josh Beakley
Symposium Chairperson and STP Editor
2
American Concrete Pipe Association
,
Irving, TX,
US
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN:
978-0-8031-7645-4
No. of Pages:
155
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2017

Recently produced South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) design standards capped the use of the indirect design method to RCP with diameter less than 36 in. in diameter and limited the use of the direct design method to RCP greater than or equal to 36 in. in diameter. In the original Marston and Spangler research done in the early twentieth century on concrete tiles up to 36 in. in diameter, flexure was the governing failure mode. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA) initiated a long-range study to determine the failure modes of large diameter RCP. Out of the long-range research came the standard installation direct design (SIDD) method, which adds crack control and radial and diagonal tension to flexure as potential RCP failure modes. Today, because of the simplicity of the indirect design method and the popularity of the three-edge bearing test, many designers and end users are choosing the indirect design method for large diameter pipe designs, not realizing that this design method does not directly address all of the RCP modes of failure. This paper looks at the direct and indirect design methods and outlines potential issues that may arise by designing RCP using the indirect or direct design methods independent of each other.

1.
Marston
,
A.
and
Anderson
,
A. O.
, “
The Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe
,”
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Bulletin No. 31
, Vol.
11
, No.
5
,
1913
.
2.
Marston
,
A.
, “
The Theory of External Loads on Closed Conduits in the Light of the Latest Experiments
,”
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Bulletin No. 96
, Vol.
28
, No.
38
,
1930
.
3.
Spangler
,
M. G.
, “
The Supporting Strength of Rigid Pipe Culverts
,” Bulletin 112,
Iowa Engineering Experiment Station
,
Ames, IA
,
1933
.
4.
Spangler
,
M. G.
, “
Field Measurements of the Settlement Ratios of Various Highway Culverts
,” Bulletin 170,
Iowa Engineering Experiment Station
,
Ames, IA
,
1950
.
5.
Spangler
,
M. G.
, “
A Theory on Loads on Negative Projecting Conduits
,” presented at the
Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board
,
Washington, DC
, January 9–12,
1951
, Highway Research Board, Washington, DC,
1951
.
6.
Heger
,
F. J.
and
McGrath
,
T. J.
,
Design Method for Reinforced Concrete Pipe and Box Sections
,
American Concrete Pipe Association
,
Irving, TX
,
1982
.
7.
American Concrete Pipe Association
,
Concrete Pipe Technology Handbook
,
ACPA
,
Irving, TX
,
2001
.
8.
American Concrete Pipe Association
,
LRFD Fill Height Tables for Concrete Pipe
,
ACPA
,
Irving, TX
,
2013
.
9.
ASCE 15-98,
Standard Practice for Direct Design of Buried Precast Concrete Pipe Using Standard Installations (SIDD)
,
American Society of Civil Engineers
,
New York
,
2001
.
10.
AASHTO
,
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
, 6th ed.,
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
,
Washington, DC
,
2013
.
11.
ASTM C76,
Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2014
, www.astm.org
12.
ASTM C497,
Standard Test Methods for Concrete Pipe, Manhole Sections, or Tile
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2016
, www.astm.org
13.
South Carolina Department of Transportation
,
Standard Drawing 714-205-00, Pipe Culverts (Rigid Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) Details and Fill Height)
, April 2,
2009
.
14.
South Carolina Department of Transportation
,
Standard Drawing 714-205-00, Pipe Culverts (Rigid Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) Details and Fill Height)
, September 26,
2012
.
15.
Erdogmus
,
E.
and
Tadros
,
M. K.
Behavior and Design of Buried Concrete Pipes
,”
Nebraska Department of Roads Research Reports
, Paper 54,
NDOR
,
Lincoln, NE
,
2006
.
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