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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Bearing Steel Technology
By
JM Beswick
JM Beswick
1
SKF Engineering & Research Centre B. V.
?
3430DT Nieuwegein,
The Netherlands
Symposium Chairman and STP Editor
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-2894-0
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2894-1
No. of Pages:
545
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2002

Rolling bearings are rated for their capabilities to withstand rolling contact fatigue. All other means of bearing failure are considered preventable through proper attention to bearing manufacture, mounting, lubrication, and minimization of contaminant ingress. The standard methods for calculation of rolling bearing capacities and fatigue lives are based on the 1947 and 1952 publications of Lundberg and Palmgren. They defined separate material factors for ball bearings and roller bearings fabricated from 52100 steel, through-hardened to at least 58 Rockwell C; the fatigue life predictions, were strongly influenced by these capacity-multiplying factors. The standard was in use for less than five years, when it became apparent bearings fabricated from ever-cleaner materials; for example vacuum degassed and vacuum melted steels, were out-performing standard life predictions. Moreover, tapered and cylindrical roller bearings routinely fabricated from carburizing steels such as SAE 4118, 4320, 8620, etc. were not directly covered by the standards. This deficiency is accommodated by the use of material-life factors applied to the Lundberg-Palmgren life equations. The Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) recommends the use of separate material-life factors to cover basic steel metallurgy, heat treatment, and metal shaping. It has been demonstrated that, together with other life factors for lubrication effectiveness and contamination, this cascading of life factors is insufficiently accurate to predict life because in most cases, these effects on bearing endurance are interdependent.

In 1985, Ioannides and Harris published a rolling bearing life prediction method based on applied and induced contact stresses and body stresses. The resultant material stresses could be combined by classical strength of materials methods of superimposition; these resultant stresses could then be compared against fatigue limit stress as the material strength criterion to determine resistance to fatigue. From 1992 through 2000, the United States Navy funded a research project to establish appropriate fatigue limit stress values for common and special rolling bearing materials and to employ such values in computerized calculation tools to effectively apply this technology to modern bearing applications. This paper presents these developments.

1.
Lundberg
,
G.
and
Palmgren
,
A.
, “
Dynamic Capacity of Rolling Bearings
”,
Acta Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering Series
.
1
, No. 3, 7,
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
(
1947
).
2.
Lundberg
,
G.
and
Palmgren
,
A.
, “
Dynamic Capacity of Roller Bearings
”,
Acta Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering Series
.
2
, No. 4, 96,
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
, (
1952
).
3.
Weibull
,
W.
, “
A Statistical Theory of the Strength of Materials
”,
Proceedings of Royal Swedish Institute for Engineering Research
, No.
151
,
Stockholm
(
1939
).
4.
Weibull
,
W.
, “
A Statistical Representation of Fatigue Failure in Solids
”,
Acta Polytech. Mech. Eng.
. Ser. 1, No. 9,
49
,
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
, (
1949
).
5.
Harris
,
T.
,
Rolling Bearing Analysis
, 4th Ed.,
Wiley
(
2001
).
6.
American Standards Association
, “
Load Ratings for Ball and Roller Bearings
”, ASA Standard B3.11-1959 (
1959
).
7.
Tallian
T.
, “
Weibull Distribution of Rolling Contact Fatigue Life and Deviations Therefrom
”,
ASLE Transactions
,
5
(
1
) (
04
1962
).
8.
Harris
,
T.
, “
Predicting Bearing Reliability
”,
Machine Design
, pp129–132, (
03
01
1963
).
9.
American National Standards Institute
, American National Standard (ANSI/ABMA) Std. 9-1990 (“
Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings
” (
17
07
1990
).
10.
American National Standards Institute
, American National Standard (ANSI/ABMA) Std. 11-1990 (“
Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Roller Bearings
” (
17
07
1990
).
11.
International Organization for Standards
, International Standard ISO 281/1, “
Rolling Bearings-Dynamic Load Ratings and Rating Life
(
2000
).
12.
Zaretsky
,
E.
,
Bamberger
,
E.
,
Harris
,
T.
,
Kacmarsky
,
W.
,
Moyer
,
C.
,
Parker
,
R.
, and
Sherlock
,
J.
,
Life Adjustment Factors for Ball and Roller Bearings, ASME Engineering Design Guide
(
1971
).
13.
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
,
STLE Life Factors for Rolling Bearings
,
Zaretsky
E.
Ed., STLE Publication SP-34 (
1992
).
14.
SKF
,
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, Catalog 4000 US, 2 nd Ed. (
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).
15.
Akesson
,
J.
, and
Lund
,
T.
, “
SKF Rolling Bearing Steels-Properties and Processes
”,
Ball Bearing Journal
, No.
217
, pp32–44 (
1983
).
16.
Ioannides
,
E.
, and
Harris
,
T.
, “
A New Fatigue Life model for Rolling Bearings
”,
ASME Trans, J. Tribology
, Vol
118
, 297–310 (
1985
).
17.
Palmgren
,
A.
, '
The Service Life of Ball Bearings
”,
Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure
,
68
, No.
14
, pp339–341 (
1924
).
18.
Harris
.
T.
and
Yu
,
W.-K.
, “
Lundberg-Palmgren Theory: Considerations of Failure Stress and Stressed Volume
”,
ASME Trans, J. Tribology
, Vol
121
, 85–89 (
01
1999
).
19.
Barnsby
,
R.
,
Harris
,
T.
,
Ioannides
,
E.
,
Littmann
,
W.
,
Lösche
,
T.
,
Murakami
,
Y.
,
Needelman
,
W.
,
Nixon
,
H.
, and
Webster
,
M.
, “
Life Ratings for Modern Rolling Bearings
”, ASME Paper 98-TRIB-57, presented at the 1998 ASME/STLE Tribology Conference,
Toronto, Canada
(
26
10
1998
).
20.
Harris
,
T.
, “
Establishment of a New Rolling Contact Bearing Life Calculation Method
”, Final Report, U. S. Navy Contract N68335-93-C-0111 (
15
01
1994
).
21.
Harris
,
T.
, and
McCool
,
J.
, “
On the Accuracy of Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life Prediction
”,
ASME Transactions, Journal of Tribology
, Vol
118
, pp 297–310 (
04
1996
).
22.
Sayles
,
R.
, and
MacPherson
,
P.
, “
Influence of Wear Debris on Rolling Contact Fatigue
”, ASTM STP 771,
Hoo
J.
, Ed., pp 255–274 (
1982
).
23.
Webster
,
M.
,
Ioannides
,
E.
, and
Sayles
,
R.
, “
The Effect of Topographical Defects on the Contact Stress and Fatigue Life in Rolling Element Bearings
”,
Proceedings 12th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology
, pp 207–226 (
1986
).
24.
Ioannides
,
E.
,
Bergling
,
G.
, and
Gabelli
,
A.
, “
An Analytical Formulation for the Life of Rolling Bearings
”,
Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Me137
(
1999
).
25.
Harris
,
T.
, “
Prediction of Ball Fatigue Life in a Ball/V-Ring Test Rig
”,
ASME Transactions, Journal of Tribology
, Vol
119
, pp 365–374 (
07
1997
).
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