Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: A New Century for Agricultural Formulations, Twenty First Volume
By
JC Mueninghoff
JC Mueninghoff
1
Symposium Chair
?
Huntsman Corporation
?
Houston, Texas
Search for other works by this author on:
AK Viets
AK Viets
editor
Search for other works by this author on:
RA Downer
RA Downer
editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2891-6
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2891-0
No. of Pages:
254
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2001

The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between spray deposition and abscission efficacy of (CMN-Pyrazole), in mechanical harvesting of the ‘Hamlin’ orange. Two tests were conducted on 1/6/00 and 2/11/00 using an air-blast tower sprayer. The sprayer was equipped with an axial-flow fan and hydraulic nozzles. The trees were sprayed at three nozzle arrangements so that 3/4, 1/2, or 1/4 of the total discharge was directed to the upper half of the tree canopy and the rest to the lower half. Spray mixtures, containing CMN-Pyrazole (Release®), adjuvant Kinetic, and a fluorescent tracer, were applied at 2.6 km/h, 3,750 L/ha and 4.0 km/h, 2,450 L/ha, in the first and second tests, respectively. Leaf samples were collected from different canopy locations and spray deposition was quantified by fluorometry. Four to five days after the applications, fruit detachment force (FDF) was measured, dropped fruit was counted, the trees were shaken with a trunk shaker, and percentage of fruit removal was determined.

Mean canopy deposition was similar for all treatments. Deposition at different canopy heights was not proportional to the amount of spray directed to that height. The situation was improved in the second experiment, probably due to the lower application rate and reduced runoff. There was no difference in deposition between two sides of the canopy. Outside canopy deposition was higher than inner canopy deposition in most locations. In general, spray applications were effective in reducing FDF. There was stronger correlation between spray deposition and FDF in the second test. FDF was higher in the upper canopy compared to lower locations in the unsprayed control trees. Fruit removal efficiencies of sprayed trees were significantly higher than those of the unsprayed control in the second test.

1.
BenSalem
,
E.
,
Salyani
,
M.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
2000
, “
Spray Deposition and Abscission Efficiency of CMN-pyrazole Used to Enhance Mechanical Harvesting of ‘Valencia’ Orange
,” submitted for publication in
Applied Engineering in Agriculture
 0883-8542.
2.
Hartmond
,
U.
,
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
Burns
,
J. K.
, and
Render
,
W. J.
,
2000
, “
Seasonal Variation in the Response of ‘Valencia’ Oranges to Two Abscission Compounds
,”
HortScience
, Vol.
35
, No.
2
, pp. 226–229.
3.
Hedden
,
S. L.
,
Churchill
,
D. B.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1988
, “
Trunk Shakers for Citrus Harvesting — Part II: Tree Growth, Fruit Yield, and Removal
,”
Applied Engineering in Agriculture
 0883-8542, Vol.
4
, No.
2
, pp. 102–106.
4.
Kender
,
W. J.
and
Hartmond
,
U.
,
1999
, “
Variability in Detachment Force and Other Properties of Fruit Within Orange Tree Canopies
,”
Fruit Varieties Journal
, Vol.
53
, No.
2
, pp. 105–109.
5.
Kender
,
W. J.
,
Hartmond
,
U.
,
Salyani
,
M.
,
Burns
J. K.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1998
, “
Effects of Concentration and Application time of ‘Prosulfuron’ on the Abscission of ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ Oranges
,”
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
, Vol.
111
, pp. 108–112.
6.
Kender
,
W. J.
,
Hartmond
,
U.
,and
Burns
J. K.
,
1999
, “
Fruit Abscission and Leaf Drop in Citrus Cultivars Treated with Metsulfuron-methyl
,”
HortTechnology
, Vol.
9
, No.
3
, pp. 412–416.
7.
Kender
,
W. J.
,
Hartmond
,
U.
,
Salyani
,
M.
,
Burns
J. K.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1999
, “
Injurious effects of metsulfuron-methyl when used to stimulate abscission of ‘Hamlin’ oranges
,”
HortScience
, Vol.
34
, No.
5
, pp. 907–910.
8.
Koo
,
Y. M.
,
Salyani
,
M.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1999
, “
Effects of Abscission Chemical Spray Deposition on Mechanical Harvest Efficacy of ‘Hamlin’ Orange
,”
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
, Vol.
112
, pp. 28–33.
9.
Koo
,
Y. M.
,
Salyani
,
M.
, and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
2000
, “
Spray Variable Effects on Abscission of Orange Fruit for Mechanical Harvesting
,”
Transactions of the ASAE
, Vol.
43
, No.
5
, pp. 1067–1073.
10.
Littell
,
R. C.
,
Milliken
,
G. A.
,
Stroup
,
W. W.
, and
Wolfinger
,
R. D.
,
1996
,
SAS System for Mixed Models
,
SAS Institute, Inc.
,
Cary, NC
.
11.
Salyani
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Methodologies for assessment of spray deposition in orchard applications
,” ASAE Paper No. 001031, 11 pp.
12.
Salyani
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Optimization of deposition efficiency for airblast sprayers
,”
Transactions of the ASAE
, Vol.
43
, No.
2
, pp. 247–253.
13.
Salyani
,
M.
and
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1990
, “
Ground speed effect on spray deposition inside citrus trees
,”
Transactions of the ASAE
, Vol.
33
, No.
2
, pp. 361–366.
14.
Salyani
,
M.
,
Koo
,
Y. M.
, and
Sweeb
,
R. D.
,
2000
, “
Spray Application Variables Affect Air Velocity and Deposition Characteristics of a Tower Sprayer
,”
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
, Vol.
113
: pp. (in press)
15.
SAS Institute, Inc.
,
1990
,
SAS User Guide: Statistics
, Ver. 6,
SAS Institute, Inc.
,
Cary, NC
.
16.
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
1999
, “
Field Test Results With Mechanical Harvesting Equipment in Florida Citrus
,”
Applied Engineering in Agriculture
 0883-8542, Vol.
15
, No.
3
, pp. 05–210.
17.
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
BenSalem
,
E.
, and
Salyani
,
M.
,
2000
, “
The Effect of Trunk Shaker Patterns on Florida Orange Removal
,” ASAE Paper No., 001103, St. Joseph, MI., 9 pp.
18.
Whitney
,
J. D.
,
Hartmond
,
U.
,
Kender
,
W. J.
,
Burns
,
J. K.
, and
Salyani
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Orange Removal with Trunk Shaker and Abscission Chemicals
,” ASAE Paper No., 991078, St. Joseph, MI., 8 pp.
19.
Wilcox
,
M.
and
Taylor
,
J. B.
,
1997
, “
Citrus Abscission at Very Low Application Rates
,”
Tropical Horticulture
, Vol.
41
, pp. 45–151.
20.
Wilson
,
W. C.
,
Coppock
,
G. E.
, and
Attaway
,
J. A.
,
1981
, “
Growth Regulators Facilitate Harvesting of Oranges
,”
Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture
, pp. 278–281.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal