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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Hydraulic Failure Analysis: Fluids, Components, and System Effects
By
GE Totten
GE Totten
1
Union Carbide Corporation
?
Tarrytown, NY,
USA
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
DK Wills
DK Wills
2
Sauer-Danfoss
?
Ames, IA,
USA
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
DG Feldmann
DG Feldmann
3
Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg
?
Hamburg,
Germany
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2883-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2883-5
No. of Pages:
611
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2001

To effectively perform root cause analysis of hydraulic wear problems and system failures, it is vital that the fundamental wear processes be correctly recognized and understood. In this paper, fundamental potential pump wear problems will be illustrated pictorially and the mechanisms of these processes will be discussed. Some of the wear processes to be discussed include: abrasion, adhesion, cavitation, rolling contact fatigue, corrosion, and lubrication failure. It is expected that this discussion will provide a basic background to facilitate understanding of the more complex wear processes to be discussed during this conference.

1.
Yamaguchi
,
A.
, “
Tribology of Hydraulic Pumps
,”
Tribology of Hydraulic Pump Testing
, ASTM STP 1310, Eds.
Totten
G. E.
,
Kling
G. H.
,
Smolenski
D. J.
,
American Society for Testing Materials
,
Conshohocken, PA
,
1996
, p. 49–61.
2.
Jackson
,
T. L.
, “
An Introduction to Industrial Hydraulic Oils
,”
Fluid Power International
, 1965, January, p. 17–23.
3.
Godfrey
,
D.
, “
Gear Wear Caused by Contaminated Oils
,”
Gear Technology
 0743-6858, 1996, Sept./Oct, p. 45–49.
4.
Newingham
,
T. D.
, “
Selecting the Best Hydraulic Fluid
,”
Power Transmission Design
, 1986, October, p. 27–31.
5.
Failure Analysis—Hydraulic Gear Pumps
,” Brochure No. HG.56.A1.U2, published by
Danfoss Fluid Power
,
8635 Washington Ave., Racine, WI 53406-3773
.
6.
Ingvast
,
H.
, “
Diagnosing Tyrone Gear Pump Failures
,” The Third Scandinavian International Conference On Fluid Power,
1993
, Vol.
2
, p. 535–546.
7.
Sasaki
,
A.
, “
A Study of Hydraulic Valve Problems
,”
Lubrication Engineer
 0024-7154,
1989
,
45
(
3
), p. 140–146.
8.
Sasaki
,
A.
, “
A Review of Contamination Related Hydraulic Pump Problems in Japanese Injection Molding, Extrusion, and Rubber Molding Industries
,”
Tribology of Hydraulic Pump Testing
, ASTM STP 1310, Eds.
Torten
G. E.
,
Kling
G. H.
,
Smolenski
D. J.
,
American Society for Testing Materials
,
Conshohocken, PA
,
1996
, p. 277–287.
9.
Moyer
,
C. A.
, “
Comparing Surface Failure Modes in Bearings and Gears: Appearances versus Mechanisms
,”
American Gear Manufacturers Association
, Technical Paper 91 FTM 6,
1991
.
10.
Erichello
,
R.
, “
Lubrication of Gears—Part 2
,”
Lubrication Engineer
 0024-7154,
1990
,
46
(
2
), p. 117–121.
11.
Fitch
,
E. C.
,
Hong
,
I. T.
, and
Xuan
,
J. L.
, “
Chapter 2—Abrasion Wear
” in Basic Fluid Power Research Program,
The BFPR Journal
,
1988
, Vol.
21
, p. 9–29.
12.
National Standard—Nomenclature of Gear Tooth Failures
, ANSI/AGMA 110.04—1980,
AGMA
,
1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, VA
, 22314,
1980
.
13.
Fitch
,
E. C.
,
Hong
,
I. T.
, and
Xuan
,
J. L.
, “
Chapter 3—Adhesion Wear
” in Basic Fluid Power Research Program,
The BFPR Journal
,
1988
, Vol.
21
, p. 31–45.
14.
Fundamentals of Applied Failure Analysis, Module 4: Analyzing Wear
,” Caterpillar Reference Number, TEBB9007, available from
Caterpillar Inc.
,
Peoria, IL
.
15.
Hydraulic Pumps and Motors: Applied Failure Analysis
,” Caterpillar Reference Book Number SEBV0563, available from
Caterpillar Inc.
,
Peoria, IL
.
16.
Faure
,
L.
, “
Different Types of Wear—How to Classify
,”
American Gear Manufacturers Association
, Technical Paper 90 FTM 4,
1990
.
17.
Fitch
,
E. C.
,
Hong
,
I. T.
, and
Xuan
,
J. L.
, “
Chapter 7—Adhesion Wear
” in Basic Fluid Power Research Program,
The BFPR Journal
,
1988
, Vol.
21
, p. 93–106.
18.
Tallian
,
T. E.
,
Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements
,
1992
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York, NY
.
19.
Henthorn
,
M.
, “
Fundamentals of Corrosion: Part I
,”
Chemical Engineering
, 1971, May, p. 127–132.
20.
Sachs
,
N. W.
, “
Metal Fatigue
,”
Lubrication Engineer
 0024-7154,
1991
,
47
(
12
), p. 977–981.
21.
Jin
,
X. Z.
, and
Kang
,
N. Z.
, “
A Study on Rolling Bearing Contact Fatigue Failure by Macro-Observation and Micro-Analysis
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Wear of Materials
,
1989
,
Denver, CO
,, Ed.
Ludema
K.
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, Vol.
1
, p. 205–213.
22.
Principles of Wear: Applied Failure Analysis
,” Caterpillar Reference Book Number SEBV0554, available from
Caterpillar Inc.
23.
Fitch
,
E. C.
,
Hong
,
I. T.
, and
Xuan
,
J. L.
, “
Chapter 4—Surface Fatigue Wear
” in Basic Power Research Program,
The BFPR Journal
,
1988
, Vol.
21
, p. 47–62.
24.
Diagnosing Hydraulic Pump Failures
,” Caterpillar Reference Number SEBD0501, available from
Caterpillar Inc.
,
Peoria, IL
.
25.
Townsend
,
D. P.
, and
Shimski
,
J.
, “
EHL Film Thickness, Additives and Gear Surface Fatigue
,”
Gear Technology
 0743-6858, 1995, May/June, p. 26–31.
26.
MacKenzie
,
K. D.
, “
Why Bearings Fail
,”
Lubrication Engineer
 0024-7154, 1978, January, p. 15–17.
27.
Zaretsky
,
E. V.
,
STLE Life Factors for Roller Bearings
,
1992
,
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
,
Park Ridge, IL
, p. 199–201.
28.
Lemberger
,
S.
, and
Totten
,
G. E.
, “
Chapter 12—Failure Analysis
,”
Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
, Ed.
Totten
G. E.
,
Marcel Dekker Inc.
,
New York
, p. 656.
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