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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Hydraulic Failure Analysis: Fluids, Components, and System Effects
By
GE Totten
GE Totten
1
Union Carbide Corporation
?
Tarrytown, NY,
USA
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
DK Wills
DK Wills
2
Sauer-Danfoss
?
Ames, IA,
USA
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
DG Feldmann
DG Feldmann
3
Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg
?
Hamburg,
Germany
Symposium Co-Chairman and Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2883-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2883-5
No. of Pages:
611
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2001

The paper deals with the tribology of surface roughness effects in rapidly moving hydraulic units, such as pumps, motors and seals. The emphasis is on laminar flow, turbulence effects being only briefly discussed. The analysis is based on lubrication theory that was originally developed for bearings in non-hydraulic equipment. However, the established results are readily adoptable to a hydraulic environment. The effects may be quasi-static or dynamic. It is shown that surface roughness may affect the operation of hydraulic units negatively or positively, depending on the actual conditions, resulting in a need for optimisation and compromise, but also in the possibility to tailor surfaces for optimal operation. Finally, for situations when an undesirable roughness structure on the surfaces is unavoidable, the paper presents methods by which the surface finish (roughness amplitude) necessary for safe operation may be determined.

1.
Tzeng
,
S. T.
and
Saibel
,
E.
, “
Surface Roughness Effect on Slider Bearing Lubrication
,”
Transactions, American Society for Lubrication Engineering
, Volume
10
,
1967
, pp. 334–344.
2.
Elrod
,
H.G.
, “
Thin-Film Lubrication Theory for Newtonian Fluids with Surfaces Possessing Striated Roughness or Grooving
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
95
,
1973
, pp. 484–489.
3.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Mathematical Verification of the Applicability of Modified Reynolds Equations to Striated Rough Surfaces
,”
Wear
 0043-1648, Volume
44
,
1977
, pp. 329–343.
4.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Surface Distributed Waviness and Roughness
,”
Proceedings, World Conference in Industrial Tribology
,
1972
,
New Delhi, India
.
5.
Patir
,
N.
and
Cheng
,
H.
, “
An Average Model for Determining Effects of Three-Dimensional Roughness on Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
100
,
1978
, pp. 12–17.
6.
Patir
,
N.
And
Cheng
,
H.
, “
Application of Average Flow Model to Lubrication Between Rough sliding Bearings
”,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
101
,
1979
, pp. 220–230.
7.
Elrod
,
H. G.
A General Theory for Laminar Lubrication with Reynolds Roughness
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
101
,
1979
, pp. 8–14.
8.
Tripp
,
J. H.
, “
Surface Roughness Effects in Hydrodynamic Lubrication: The Flow Factor Method
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
105
,
1983
, pp. 458–465.
9.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Numerical Investigation of the Lubrication of Doubly Periodic Unit Roughnesses
,”
Wear
 0043-1648, Volume
64
,
1980
, pp. 1–14.
10.
Salant
,
R. F.
, “
Numerical Analysis of the Flow Field Within Lip Seals Containing Microundulations
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
114
,
1992
, pp.485–491.
11.
Salant
,
R. F.
and
Flaherty
,
A. L.
, “
Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of Reverse Pumping in Rotary Lip Seals with Microasperities
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
117
,
1995
, pp. 53–59.
12.
Tønder
,
K.
and
Salant
,
R. F.
, “
Non-Leaking Lip Seals: A Roughness Effect Study
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
114
,
1992
, pp. 595–599.
13.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Reducing Failure Risk by Surface Structure Modification: A Microstructure Model of the Lubrication of Nominally Thin Films
,”
Proceedings ESRA 1997 Symposium
,
Takamatsu, Japan
,
1997
.
14.
Christensen
,
H.
and
Tønder
,
K.
, ”
The Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rough Surfaces of Finite Width
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
92
,
1971
, pp. 324–330.
15.
Christensen
,
H.
and
Tønder
,
K.
, “
The Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rough Journal Bearings
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
95
,
1973
, pp. 166–172.
16.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
A New Class of Bearings Based on Roughness Effects
,” Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Presented at H.S. Cheng Surveillance, Joint Tribology Conference,
Orlando, FL
1999
. To be published.
17.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Dynamics of Rough Slider Bearings: Effects of One-sided Roughness and Waviness
,”
Tribology International
 0301-679X, Volume
29
,
1996
, pp. 117–122.
18.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Time-Varying Roughness Distributions: A Neglected Load-Carrying Mechanism
,” Proceedings, International Tribology Conference,
Yokohama, Japan
,
1997
, pp. 999–1004.
19.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Vibrations in Spring-Supported Bearing Pads Due to Non-contacting Roughnesses
,” Nordtrib'98, Proceedings, International Conference,
Ebeltoft, Denmark
,
1998
, pp. 593–602.
20.
Sun
,
D C.
and
Chen
,
K. K.
, “
First Effects of Stokes Roughness on Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Lubrication Technology
 0022-2305, Volume
99
,
1977
, pp. 2–9.
21.
Mitsuya
,
Y.
and
Fukui
,
S.
, “
Stokes Roughness Effects on Hydrodynamic Lubrication, Part 1—Comparison between Incompressible and Compressible Lubricating Films
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
108
,
1986
, pp. 151–158.
22.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
DDC Lubrication: A New Concept in Tribology
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
114
,
1992
, pp. 181–185.
23.
Tønder
,
K.
and
Christensen
,
H.
, “
Waviness and Roughness in Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings
, Volume
186
,
1972
, pp. 807–812.
24.
Lunde
,
L.
and
Tønder
,
K.
, “
Pressure and Shear Flow in a Rough Hydrodynamic Bearing: Flow Factor Calculation
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
119
,
1997
, pp. 549–555.
25.
Tønder
,
K.
and
Jakobsen
,
J.
, “
Interferometric Studies of Effects of Striated Roughness on Lubricant Film Thickness Under Hydrodynamic Conditions
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
114
,
1992
, pp. 52–56.
26.
Tønder
,
K.
, “
The Effects of Machining Methods on Lubricant Flow
”,
Tribologia
, Volume
4
,
1985
, pp. 50–68.
27.
Seljeseth
,
O. A.
, “
Lubrication of Natural and Artificial Human Hip Joints: Theoretical Studies and Experimental Work
,” Master's thesis,
Høgskolen i Narvik
, Narvik, Norway,
1994
.
28.
Mitsuya
,
Y.
,
Ohkubo
,
T.
and
Ota
,
H.
, “
Averaged Reynolds Equation Extended to Gas Lubrication Possessing Surface Roughness in Slip Flow Regime: Approximate Method and Confirmation Experiments
,”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Tribology
 0742-4787, Volume
111
,
1989
, pp. 495–503.
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