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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Marine Corrosion in Tropical Environments
By
SW Dean
SW Dean
1
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
?
Allentown, PA Symposium co-chair and co-editor
Search for other works by this author on:
GH-D Delgadillo
GH-D Delgadillo
2
Universidad del Mayab
?
Merida, Mexico Symposium co-chair and co-editor
Search for other works by this author on:
JB Bushman
JB Bushman
3
Bushman & Associates
?
Medina, OH Symposium co-chair and co-editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2873-8
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2873-6
No. of Pages:
320
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
2000

The electrical conductivity of mortar and concrete samples was measured. Series of samples were prepared with crushed limestone (approximately 95–98% calcium carbonate), water-to-cement ratios of 0.53, 0.59, 0.70 and 0.76 and cured at 7 and 28 days. The conductivity, for both mortar and concrete, in chloride solution of concentration 1M, 2M, 3M and 4M, increases as the chloride concentration in the solution increases. The conductivity of mortar specimens take values between 0.60 and 2.18 mS/cm, while the concrete samples have values in the range from 2.10 to 5.44 mS/cm. For concrete samples, the conductivity decreases with curing time, which indicates that the conduction is, in such a case, due mainly to capillar porosity. The conductivity values of mortar increase, when the curing time increases. It is suggested that such behavior is due to the hydration process of the paste in the mortar and the water transport in the pore gel structure resulting thereafter.

1.
Rasheeduzzafar
,
Dakhil
,
F. H.
,
Bader
,
M. A.
, and
Khan
,
M. M.
, “
Performance of Corrosion Resisting Steels in Chloride-Bearing Concrete
,”
ACI Materials Journal
 0889-325X, Vol.
89
, No.
5
,
1992
, pp. 439–448.
2.
Treadaway
,
K.W. J.
,
Cox
,
R. N.
,
Brown
,
B. L.
, “
Durability of Corrosion Resisting Steels in Concrete
,”
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers
(
London
) Part 1-Design and Construction,
1989
, pp. 305–331.
3.
Turgeon
,
R.
, “
Evaluation of Epoxy and Galvanized Reinforcing Bars in Pennsylvania Bridge Decks
,”
Corrosion 87
,
Naational Association of Corrosion Engineers
, Paper 140,
1987
,
Houston, TX, USA
.
4.
Hazan
,
J.
, and
Yahalom
,
J.
, “
Corrosion of Protected Aluminum and Zinc
,”
Corrosion Science
 0010-938X, Vol.
35
, Nos.
1–4
,
1993
, pp. 223–229.
5.
MacDowell
,
L. G.
 III
, “
Protective Coating Systems for Carbon Steel Exposed to an Acid-Marine Environment
,”
Materials Performance
, Vol.
31
, No.
4
,
1992
, pp.33.
6.
Vincent
,
L. D.
, “
Inorganic Zincs-A Love/Hate Relationship
,”
Materials Performance
, Vol.
33
, No.
9
,
1994
, pp. 35–38.
7.
Faidi
,
S. E.
,
Scantlebury
,
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,
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,
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,
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, and
Savin
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,”
Corrosion Science
 0010-938X, Vol.
35
, No.
5–8
,
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8.
Rodríguez-Gómez
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F. J.
,
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, “
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,”
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,
1990
, pp. 193–197.
9.
González
,
J. A.
,
Vázquez
,
A. J.
,
Jáuregui
,
G.
, and
Andrade
,
C.
, “
Effect of Four Coating Structures on Corrosion Kinetic of Galvanized Reinforcement in Concrete
,”
Matériaux et Constructions
, Vol.
17
, No.
102
,
1984
, pp. 409–414.
10.
Yeomans
,
S. R.
, “
Considerations of the Characteristics and Use of Coated Steel Reinforcement in Concrete
,” Report No. NISTIR 5211,
National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce
, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899, USA,
1993
.
11.
Yeomans
,
S. R.
, “
Corrosion of the Zinc alloy Coating in Galvanized Reinforced Concrete
,”
Corrosion 98
,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
, Paper 653,
1992
,
Houston TX., USA.
.
12.
Yeomans
,
S. R.
, “
Performance of Black, Galvanized, and Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steels in Chloride-Contaminated Concrete
,”
Corrosion
, Vol.
50
, No.
1
,
1994
, pp. 72–81.
13.
Hime
,
W. G.
, and
Machin
,
M.
, “
Performance Variances of Galvanized Steel in Mortar and Concrete
,”
Corrosion
, Vol.
49
, No
10
,
1993
, pp. 858–860.
14.
Andrade
,
C.
,
Jáuregui
,
G.
, and
González
,
J. A.
, “
Influence of Mortar Mix Proportions on Corrosion of Bare and Galvanized Reinforcements Causes by Penetration of Chlorides
,”
8th. Int. Cong. on Metallic Corrosion
,
1981
, pp. 1372–1377.
15.
Macías
,
A.
, and
Andrade
,
C.
, “
Galvanized Steel Behaviour in Ca(OH)2 Saturated Solutions Containing SO4 Ions
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
17
,
1987
, pp. 307–316.
16.
Macías
,
A.
, and
Andrade
,
C.
, “
Corrosion rate of Galvanized Steel Immersed in Saturated Solutions of Ca(OH)2 in the pH Range 12–13.8
,”
British Corrosion Journal
, Vol.
18
, No.
2
,
1983
, pp. 82.
17.
Roberge
,
R.
, and
Zheng
,
W.
, “
Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Galvanized 4135 Steel in Cement Environment
,”
Corrosion Science
 0010-938X, Vol.
35
, No.
1–4
,
1993
, pp. 507–514.
18.
Wilcox
,
G. D.
, and
Gabe
,
D. R.
, “
Electrodeposited Zinc Alloy Coatings
,”
Corrosion Science
 0010-938X, Vol.
35
, No.
5–8
,
1993
, pp. 1251–1258.
19.
Vázquez
,
D.
Diagnóstico de Corrosión del Puente de Celestún, Yuc. Mex.
,” Tesis de Maestría,
Fac. de Ing. Civil. UADY
,
1997
.
20.
Castro
,
P.
, and
Maldonado
,
L.
, “
Penetration of Chlorides and Rebars Corrosion in Concrete Columns of two Schools at a Marine Site
,”
Corrosion 96
,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
, Paper 321,
1996
,
Houston TX., USA
.
21.
Castro
,
P.
, and
Maldonado
,
L.
, “
Initial Efforts to Evaluate the Corrosion Problems in the Infrastructure of the Mexican Southeast Coastal Zone
,”
Corrosion 95
,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
, Paper 21,
1995
,
Houston, TX., USA
.
22.
Castro
,
P.
,
Veleva
,
L.
, and
Balancán
M.
, “
Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete in a Tropical Marine Environment and in Accelerated Tests
,”
Construction and Buildings Materials
, Vol.
11
,
1997
, No
2
, pp. 75–81.
23.
Veleva
,
L.
,
Castro
,
P.
,
Hernández-Duque
G.
, and
Schorr
,
M.
, “
The Corrosion Performance of Steel and Reinforced Concrete in a Tropical Humid Climate
,”
Corrosion Reviews
, Vol.
16
, No.
3
,
1998
, pp. 235–284.
24.
Maldonado
L.
, and
Veleva
,
L.
, “
Corrosivity Category Maps of a Humid Tropical Atmosphere: The Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
,”
Materials and Corrosion
Vol.
50
,
1999
, pp. 261–266.
25.
Maldonado
,
L.
,
Castro
P.
, and
Echeverría
,
M.
, “
A Comparative Study of Atmospheric Corrosion in the Caribbean Area
,”
Corrosion 95
,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
, Paper 237,
1995
,
Houston, TX, USA
.
26.
Corvo
,
F.
,
Haces
,
C.
,
Betancourt
,
N.
,
Maldonado
,
L.
,
Véleva
,
L.
,
Echeverria
,
M.
,
de Rincón
O. T.
, and
Rincón
,
A.
, “
Atmospheric Corrosivity in the Caribbean Area
,”
Corrosion Science
 0010-938X, Vol.
39
, No.
5
,
1997
, pp. 823–833.
27.
Whiting
,
D.
, “
Rapid Chloride Determination of the Chloride Ion Permeability of Concrete
,” Final Report No. FHWA/RD-81/119,
Federal Highway Administration
, Washington D. C.,
1981
.
28.
Dhir
,
R. K.
,
Jones
,
M. R.
,
Ahmed
,
H. E. H.
, and
Seneviratne
,
A. M. G.
,
Magazine of Concrete Research
 0024-9831, Vol.
42
,
1990
, pp. 177–185,
29.
Tang
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, and
Nilsson
L. O.
,
,
ACI Materials Journal
 0889-325X, Vol.
89
,
1992
, pp. 49–53.
30.
Feldman
,
R. F.
,
Gordon
W. C.
,
Brosseau
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, and
Tumidajski
,
J.
,
ACI Materials. Journal
 0889-325X, Vol.
91
,
1994
, pp. 246–255.
31.
Streicher
P. E.
, and
Alexander
,
M. G.
, “
A Chloride Conduction Test for Concrete
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
25
,
1995
, pp. 1284–1294.
32.
Hansson
I. L. H.
, and
Hansson
C. M.
, “
Ion-Conduction in Cement-Based Materials
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
15
,
1985
, pp. 201–212.
33.
Morris
,
W.
,
Moreno
E. I.
, and
Sagués
,
A. A.
, “
Practical Evaluation of Concrete Test Cylinders Using a Wenner Array Probe
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
26
,
1996
, pp. 1779–1787.
34.
Hansson
I. L. H.
, and
Hansson
,
C. M.
, “
Electrical Resistivity Measurements of Portland Cement Based Materials
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
13
,
1983
, pp. 675–683.
35.
Tumidajski
,
P. J.
, “
Electrical conductivity of Portland Cement Mortars
,”
Cement and Concrete Research
 0008-8846, Vol.
26
,
1996
, pp. 529–534.
36.
Nataliya
H.
,
Hooton
R. D.
, and
Mills
R. H.
, “
Pore Structure and Permeability
,” reprint from the STP 169 C of the American Society for Testing Materials, pp. 240–260,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1994
.
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