Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Very Large-Scale Fires
By
NR Keltner
NR Keltner
Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
NJ Alvares
NJ Alvares
Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
SJ Grayson
SJ Grayson
Editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2481-3
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2481-3
No. of Pages:
171
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1998

In this paper we describe a model for simulating the spread of large-scale forest fires based on three novel concepts related, respectively to the three main features of the forest-fire problem that make it essentially intractable to simulate from first principles—namely, i) inhomogeneity and irregularity of forest fuel materials, ii) chemistry and radiation, and iii) turbulence. In particular, the complex structural features of the forest are treated as an inhomogeneous, very permeable porous medium; effects of chemistry and radiation are included as a source term in the thermal energy equation, and turbulence is modeled via the standard k-ϵ model. Firebrand trajectories are computed at the end of any given flowfield calculation to estimate maximum spotting distances.

1.
Pyne
,
S.
,
Andrews
,
P. L.
, and
Laven
,
R. D.
Introduction to Wildland Fire
. Second edn.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
New York, NY
,
1996
.
2.
Williams
,
F. A.
Urban and Wildland Fire Phenomenology
.”
Progress in Energy and Combustion Sciences
, vol.
8
,
1982
:pp. 317–357.
3.
Soma
,
S.
and
Saito
,
K.
Reconstruction of fire whirls using scale models
.”
Combustion and Flame
 0010-2180, vol.
86
,
1991
:pp. 269–284.
4.
Albini
,
F. A.
Spot Fire Distance From Burning Trees: A Predictive Model
.” General Technical Report INT-56,
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
, Ogden, UT,
1979
.
5.
Fons
,
W. L.
Analysis of Fire Spread in Light Forest Fuels
.”
Journal for Agricultural Research
, vol.
72
(
3
),
1946
:pp. 93–121.
6.
Vogel
,
M.
and
Williams
,
F. A.
Flame Propagation Along Matchstick Arrays
.”
Combustion Science and Technology
, vol.
1
,
1970
:pp. 429–436.
7.
Pagni
,
P. I.
and
Peterson
,
T. G.
Flame Spread Through Porous Fuels
.” Tech. rep., In proceedings of 14th Intern. Symp. on Combustion,
The Combustion Institute
,
Pittsburgh, PA
,
1972
.
8.
Rothermel
,
R. C.
A Mathematical Model for Predicting Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels
.” Research Paper INT-115,
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
,
Ogden, UT
,
1972
.
9.
Rothermel
,
R. C.
Predicting Behavior and Size of Crown Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains
.” Research Paper INT-438,
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
,
Ogden, UT
,
1991
.
10.
Andrews
,
P. L.
BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system—BURN Subsystem. Part 1.
” Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-194,
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
, Ogden, UT,
1986
.
11.
Albini
,
F. A.
A Model for the Wind-Blown Flame from a Line Fire
.”
Combustion and Flame
 0010-2180, vol.
43
,
1981
:pp. 155–174.
12.
Albini
,
F. A.
A Model for Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels by Radiation
.”
Combustion Science and Technology
, vol.
42
,
1985
:pp. 229–258.
13.
Albini
,
F. A.
Potential Spotting Distance from Wind-Driven Surface Fires
.” Research Paper INT-309,
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
,
Ogden, UT
,
1983
.
14.
Hirano
,
T.
and
Saito
,
K.
Fire Spread Phenomena: The Role of Observation in Experiment
.”
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science
, vol.
20
,
1984
:pp. 461–485.
15.
Venkatesh
,
S.
and
Saito
,
K.
Maximum Spotting Distances in Wind-Driven Crown Fires (SDWCF)
.” Final Report No. INT-91586-RJVA,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky
, Lexington, KY,
1992
.
16.
Nield
,
D. A.
and
Bejan
,
A.
Convection in Porous Media
.
Springer-Verlag
,
New York, NY
,
1992
.
17.
Ward
,
J. C.
Turbulent Flow in Porous Media
.”
Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers
, vol.
HY5
(
90
),
1990
.
18.
Ounis
,
H.
and
Ahmadi
,
G.
Motions of Small Rigid Spheres in Simulated Random Velocity Field
.”
J. Eng. Mech.
, vol.
115
(
10
),
10
1989
:pp. 2107–2121.
19.
Kladas
,
D. D.
and
Georgiou
,
D. P.
A Relative Examination ofCD-Re Relationships Used in Particle Trajectory Calculations
.”
Journal of Fluids Engineering
 0098-2202, vol.
15
,
1993
:pp. 162–165.
20.
Aggarwal
,
S. K.
,
Yapo
,
J. B.
,
Grinstein
,
F. F.
, and
Kailasanath
,
K.
Numerical Simulation of Particle Transport in Planar Shear Layers
.”
Computers and Fluids
, vol.
25
,
1996
:pp. 39–59.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal