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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Water Leakage Through Building Facades
By
RJ Kudder
RJ Kudder
1
Raths, Raths & Johnson, Inc.
,
835 Midway Drive, Willow Brook, IL 60521
;
symposium cochairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
JL Erdly
JL Erdly
2
Masonry Preservation Services, Inc.
, PO Box 324,
Berwick, PA 18603
;
symposium cochairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2042-7
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2042-6
No. of Pages:
313
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1998

Due to the mismanagement of penetrating water, many masonry walls deteriorate long before the end of their intended life-span. The amount of penetrating water is dependent upon the permeability characteristics of the facade and the severity of wind-driven rain. Therefore, it would be useful to designers to know more precisely the environment in which their structures will be subjected, and also for investigators to have accurate means for assessing the performance of structures through the use of non-destructive water testing.

Current standards include methods for water test chamber, spray rack, and calibrated nozzle testing. Typically, these methods differ in water flow rates, impact velocity of water, air pressure differential and duration. These tests historically have not allowed the variation of testing parameters to compensate for realistic site conditions. The use of appropriate weather data can greatly improve the relevance of such testing.

This paper explores the conversion of published weather data to testing parameters which can be used to simulate weather conditions. Included is an analysis of the dynamics of rainfall and its impact on surfaces of various orientation. The analysis is based on the effects of wind speed, direction, surface orientation, and rainfall intensity. Also discussed are the appropriateness of water chamber, spray rack, and spray nozzle testing, with regards to accurate rainfall simulation.

1.
Choi
,
Edmund C. C.
, “
Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Wind-Driven Rain on the Front Face of a Building
,” Wind, Rain, and the Building Envelope, Invitational Seminar,
University of Western Ontario
,
Canada
,
05
1994
.
2.
McDonald
,
James E.
, “
The Shape of Raindrops
,”
Scientific American
 0036-8733,
190
,
02
1954
, pp. 64068.
3.
Galitz
,
Christopher L.
, “
Simulation of Wind-Driven Rainfall
,” Undergraduate Thesis for B.S. Degree in Engineering Science and Mechanics,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
, Blacksburg, Virginia,
1992
.
4.
National Weather Service, National Climatological Center
, Asheville, NC, Hourly Rainfall and Wind Speed Data,
1990
.
5.
Humphreys
,
W.J.
,
Physics of the Air
,
J.B. Lippincott Company
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
1920
, pp. 257–270.
6.
Monk
,
C.B.
, Jr.
, “
Adaptations and Additions to ASTM Test Method E514 (Water Permeance of Masonry) for Field Conditions
,” Masonry: Materials, Properties, and Performance, ASTM STP 778,
Borchelt
J.G.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
1982
, pp.
237–244
.
7.
Driscoll
,
M.E.
and
Gates
,
R.E.
, “
A Comparative Review of Various Test Methods for Evaluating the Water Penetration Resistance of Concrete Masonry Wall Units
,” Masonry: Design and Construction, Problems and Repair, ASTM STP 1180,
Melander
John M.
and
Lauersdorf
Lynn R.
, Eds.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
1993
.
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