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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Fire Resistance of Industrial Fluids
By
GE Totten
GE Totten
1
Union Carbide Corporation
?
Tarrytown NY
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
J Reichel
J Reichel
2
Deutsche Montan Technologie (DMT)
?
Essen,
Germany
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2041-9
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2041-9
No. of Pages:
199
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1996

Traditionally fluid fire resistance testing has focused on ignitability under specific test conditions. It is well known, however, that fluids of similar flashpoint can differ substantially in their abilities to sustain fire. One technique which has been used extensively to measure ease of extinction of solid plastic strips is oxygen index. This simple test has also been applied to 1000 compounds including hydraulic fluids, lubricating oils, and silicone fluids. This paper reviews data on fluids and powders and discusses how oxygen index can be used to provide additional insight into the flammability behavior of fluids.

1.
Fire Resistance of Hydraulic Fluids
,” ASTM STP 408,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA.
1966
, 194pp.
2.
Miller
,
D. B.
 et al
., “
An Appraisal of Tests and Standards for the Evaluation of Electrical Insulating Fluids
,” NBSIR, 76-1054,
U.S. Department of Commerce
, Washington, DC,
07
1976
, 122pp.
3.
Orsbeck
,
T.
New Principles of Fire Hazard Assessment for Fluid-Filled Electrical Equipment
,” Proceedings Ninth International Conference of Fire Safety,
Milbrae, CA
, January 16–20, 1984,
Product Safety Corporation
,
9
,
1984
, pp. 101–125.
4.
Early
,
C. L.
and
Hatton
,
R. E.
, “
Industrial and ASTM Fluid Fire-Test Programs
,” in ASTM STP 408,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
1966
, pp. 105–134.
5.
Li
,
C. C.
and
Moore
,
J. B.
, “
Estimating Flash Points of Organic Compounds
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
8
,
1977
, pp. 30–40.
6.
Affens
,
W. A.
and
Carhart
,
H. W.
, “
The Effect of Ullage on the Flash Point and Lower Flammability Limit Temperatures of JP-5 Jet Fuels
, NRL Memorandum Report 1735,
Naval Research Laboratory
, Washington, DC, November, 1996, 10pp.
7.
Ishida
,
H.
and
Iwama
,
A.
, “
Some Critical Discussions on Flash and Fire Points of Liquid Fuels
,” Fire Safety Science, Proceedings of the First International Symposium,
Grant
C. E.
and
Pagni
P. J.
, eds.,
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation
,
Washington, DC
,.
1986
, pp. 217–226
8.
Lipowitz
,
J.
, “
Fire Safety Properties of Some Transformer Dielectric Liquids
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
15
,
1982
, pp. 39–55.
9.
Elam
,
S. K.
 et al
., “
Cone Heater Ignition Tests of Liquid Fuels
,”
Fire Safety Journal
,
16
,
1990
, pp. 65–84.
10.
Buch
,
R. R.
, “
Rates of Heat Release and Related Fire Parameters for Silicones
,”
Fire Safety Journal
,
17
,
1991
, pp. 1–12.
11.
Nelson
,
G. L.
and
Webb
,
J. L.
, “
Oxygen Index, Flammability and Materials
.” In Advances in Fire Retardant Textiles (Advances in Fire Retardants Part 3), Progress in Fire Retardancy Series 5, ed.
Bhatnagar
V. J.
,
Technomic Publishing Co.
,
Westport CT
,
1975
.
12.
Simmons
,
R. F.
and
Wolfhard
,
H. G.
,
Combustion and Flame
 0010-2180,
1
,
1957
, p.155.
13.
Arney
,
W. C.
, Jr.
, and
Kuryla
,
W. C.
, “
Structure-Property Relationships in Flame Retardant Systems
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
3
,
1972
, pp. 183–191.
14.
Nelson
,
G. L.
and
Webb
,
J. L.
, “
Oxygen Index of Liquids-Technique and Applications
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
4
,
1973
, pp. 210–226.
15.
Nelson
,
G. L.
and
Webb
,
J. L.
, “
Oxygen Index of Liquids: Halogen Compounds
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
4
,
1973
, pp. 325–343.
16.
Lipowitz
,
J.
and
Ziemelis
,
M. J.
, “
Flammability of Poly(dimethylsiloxanes). II. Flammability and Fire Hazard Properties
,”
Journal of Fire and Flammability
,
7
,
1976
, pp. 504–529.
17.
Sundin
,
D.
, “
Heat Release Rates of Dielectric Fluids: A Guide to Method Selection
.” Seventeenth International Fire Safety Conference,
Product Safety Corporation
,
Milbrae, CA
, January 13–17, 1992.
18.
Nelson
,
G. L.
, “
Flammability and Oxygen Index
,
International Polymer Journal
,
7
, (
3–4
),
1979
, 127–145pp.
19.
Ikeda
,
G. K.
, “
Oxygen Index Tests to Evaluate the Suitability of a Given Material for Oxygen Service
,” Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres, ASTM STP 812,
Wesley
B. L.
, ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
1983
, pp. 56–57.
20.
Benning
,
M. A.
, “
Measurement of Oxygen Index at Elevated Pressures
,” Flammability and Sensitivity of Material in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres, ASTM STP 812,
Wesley
B. L.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
1983
, pp. 68–83.
21.
Kanury
,
A. M.
, “
Theoretical Analyses of Fire and Flammability Tests: III. The Limiting Oxygen Index Test
,” International Symposium-Fire Safety of Combustible Materials,
University of Edinburg Center for Industrial Consultancy and Liaison
,
Edinburgh, UK
,
1975
, pp. 187–198.
22.
Kishore
,
K.
and
Mohandas
,
K.
, “
A New Parameter for the Flammability of Combustible Materials
,”
Journal of Hazardous Materials
,
3
,
1980
, pp. 349–356.
23.
Sullivan
,
M. V.
,
Wolfe
,
J. K.
, and
Zisman
,
W. A.
,
Ind. Eng. Chem
 0019-7866,
39
,
1947
, p. 1607.
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