Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation
By
SJ Kelley, AIA, SE
SJ Kelley, AIA, SE
1
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
,
Chicago, IL 60606
;
editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-2006-0
ISBN:
978-0-8031-2006-8
No. of Pages:
454
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1996

In historic structures, other criteria for evaluation of stone cleaning become as or more significant than mere cleanliness. Preservation of the original surface, the effect on the surface's future durability, environmental effects, and the nature and causes of distress, must be considered. New criteria must include not only these, but also the need to minimize any future intervention. A trained geologist can prove invaluable to the professional team in the evaluation of these criteria. The body of geologic knowledge contains the necessary information for evaluation. Geological evaluation can identify causes of distress, evaluate effects of cleaning processes on the materials of a structure, and identify methods that are most, or least, desirable. Methods can be equally applicable to the selection and evaluation of replacement materials. An illustration of the evaluation process is given using the Tribune Tower, Chicago, Illinois, and the Mormon Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah, as examples. Considerations for other materials are also described.

1.
Brownell
,
W. E.
,
Structural Clay Products
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
,
1976
.
2.
Ernst
,
W. G.
,
Earth Materials
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
,
1969
.
3.
Evans
,
R. C.
,
An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry
,
Cambridge University Press
,
London
,
1964
.
4.
Fritz
,
S. J.
and
Ragland
,
P. C.
, “
Weathering Rinds Developed on Plutonic Rocks in the North Carolina Piedmont
,”
American Journal of Science
, Vol.
280
, pp. 546–559.
5.
Fyfe
,
W. S.
,
Geochemistry of Solids
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
,
1964
.
6.
Hosker
, ,
R. P.
 Jr.
,
Smith
,
E. A.
,
White
,
J. R.
, and
Heathcote
,
E. A.
, “
Dry Deposition to Structures
,”
APT Bulletin
, Vol.
XXIII
, No.
4
,
1991
.
7.
Hurlbut
,
C. S.
,
Dana's Manual of Mineralogy
, 18th Ed.,
John Wiley and Sons
,
New York
,
1971
.
8.
Ineson
,
P. R.
Introduction to Practical Ore Microscopy
,
John Wiley and Sons
,
New York
,
1989
.
9.
Kaiser
,
E.
, “
A Fundamental Factor in the Weathering of Rocks and Comparison of the Chemical Weathering of Stone in Buildings and Nature
,”
Chemi Der Erde
, Vol.
4
, No.
2
, pp. 290–342, BSA
1929
, No. 1561.
10.
Kerr
,
P. F.
,
Optical Mineralogy
, 3rd Ed.,
McGraw Hill
,
New York
,
1959
.
11.
McGee
,
E. S.
, “
Influence of Microclimate on the Deterioration of Historic Marble Buildings
,”
APT Bulletin
, Vol.
XXIII
, No.
4
,
1991
.
12.
Sherwood
,
S. I.
 et al
,
Acidic Deposition: State of Science and Technology, Report 20, Processes of Deposition to Structures
,
NAPAP, Government Printing Office
,
Washington, DC
,
1990
.
13.
Verhoogan
,
J.
,
Turner
,
F. J.
,
Weiss
,
L. E.
,
Wahrhaftig
,
C.
, and
Fyfe
,
W. S.
,
The Earth, an Introduction to Physical Geology
,
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
,
New York
,
1970
.
14.
Williams
,
H.
,
Turner
,
F. J.
, and
Gilbert
,
C. M.
,
Petrography
,
W. H.
Freeman and Company
,
New York
,
1954
.
15.
Winkler
,
E. M.
, “
Decay of Stone Monuments and Buildings: The Role of Acid Rain
,”
Technical Conservation
, Spring, 1982, pp. 32–36.
16.
Weathering and Weathering Rates of Natural Stone
,”
Environmental Geology & Water Science
, Vol.
9
, No.
2
, pp. 85–92.
17.
Weathering of Crystalline Marble at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
,”
APT Bulletin
, Vol.
XXIII
, No.
4
,
1991
.
18.
Winkler
,
E. M.
, ed.,
Decay and Preservation of Stone
, Engineering Geology Case Histories Number 11,
Geological Society of America
,
Boulder
,
1978
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal