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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Compression Response of Composite Structures
By
SE Groves
SE Groves
1
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
,
Livermore, CA
;
symposium chairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
AL Highsmith
AL Highsmith
2
University of Alabama
,
Tuscaloosa, AL
;
symposium co-chairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1499-0
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1499-9
No. of Pages:
372
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1994

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the failure strength and damage mechanism of notched composite laminates under a biaxial compression loading condition. Square specimens (125 mm) were made from G-10 orthotropic woven composite laminates by drilling a 20-mm-diameter center hole. Under biaxial compression loading, one or two fractures nucleated from the edge of the hole perpendicular to one of the two compression loading directions depending on the biaxial load ratio. Fracture surfaces of failed specimens were observed in an SEM, and kinking bands at the notch root were found to control the failure of specimens under both uniaxial and biaxial compression loading conditions. Remote failure stress and strain of notched specimens under uniaxial compression are about 50% of the failure stress and strain obtained from unnotched specimens in the same direction. Stress and strain at the notch root were obtained by an FEM calculation and strain gage measurements. The average stress and strain at the notch root over a characteristic length of 5 mm were found to control the formation of kinking bands and failure strength. A concentration factor based on the average stress criterion is introduced and used successfully to correlate the failure strength of notched woven laminates under biaxial loading conditions.

1.
Auerbuch
,
J.
and
Madhukar
,
M. S.
, “
Notched Strength of Composite Comments: Predictions and Experiments—A Review
,”
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Laminates
, Vol.
4
,
1985
, pp. 3–159.
2.
Wu
,
E. M.
, “
Fracture Mechanics of Anisotropic Plates
,”
Composite Materials Workshop
,
Technomic Publishing Co.
,
Westport, CT
,
1968
.
3.
Waddoups
,
M. E.
,
Eisenmann
,
J. R.
, and
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,
B. E.
, “
Macroscopic Fracture Mechanics of Advanced Composite Materials
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
5
,
1971
, pp. 446–454.
4.
Bowie
,
O. L.
, “
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,”
Journal of Mathematics and Physics
 0022-2488, Vol.
35
,
1956
, pp. 60–71.
5.
Cruse
,
T. A.
, “
Tensile Strength of Notched Composites
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
7
,
1973
, pp. 218–229.
6.
Whitney
,
J. M.
and
Nuismer
,
R. J.
Stress Fracture Criteria for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentrations
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
8
,
1974
, pp. 253–265.
7.
Nuismer
,
R. J.
and
Whitney
,
J. M.
, “
Uniaxial Failure of Composite Laminates Containing Stress Concentrations
,”
Fracture Mechanics of Composites
, ASTM STP 593,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1975
, pp. 117–142.
8.
Nuismer
,
R. J.
and
Labor
,
J. D.
, “
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,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
12
,
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, pp. 238–249.
9.
Nuismer
,
R. J.
and
Labor
,
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, “
Applications of the Average Stress Failure Criterion: Part II—Compression
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
13
,
1979
, pp. 49–60.
10.
Daniel
,
I. M.
, “
Behavior of Graphite/epoxy Plates with Holes under Biaxial Loading
,”
Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
20
,
1980
, pp. 1–8.
11.
Pipes
,
R. B.
,
Wetherhold
,
R. C.
, and
Gillespie
,
J. W.
 Jr.
, “
Notched Strength of Composite Materials
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
13
,
1979
, pp. 148–160.
12.
Nejhad
,
M. N. G.
and
Chou
,
T. W.
, “
A Model for the Prediction of Compressive Strength Reduction of Composite Laminates with Molded-in Holes
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
24
,
1990
, pp. 236–255.
13.
Lekhnitski
,
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,
Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body
,
Holden-Day
,
San Francisco
,
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.
14.
Haftka
,
R. T.
and
Starnes
,
J. H.
 Jr.
, “
Stiffness Tailoring for Improved Compressive Strength of Composite Plates with Holes
,”
AIAA Journal
 0001-1452, Vol.
26
,
1988
, pp. 72–77.
15.
Daniel
,
I. M.
, “
Biaxial Testing of [O2/45]s Graphite/Epoxy Plates with Holes
,”
Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
22
,
1982
, pp. 188–195.
16.
Doong
,
S. H.
,
Faoro
,
J. M.
, and
Socie
,
D. F.
, “
In-plane Biaxial Compressive Deformation and Failure of E-Glass/Epoxy Laminates
,”
Composite Materials: Testing and Design
, ASTM STP 1120, Philadelphia,
1992
, pp. 87–102.
17.
Soutis
,
C.
and
Fleck
,
N. A.
, “
Static Compression Failure of Carbon Fiber T800/924c Composite Plate with a Single Hole
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
24
,
1990
, pp. 536–558.
18.
Wang
,
J. Z.
and
Socie
,
D. F.
, “
Biaxial Compression Testing of G-10 Woven Fabric Composite Laminates
,”
Proceedings
, Sixth Japan-United States Conference on Composite Materials,
1992
,
Orlando
,
Technomic Publishing
,
Lancaster, PA
, pp. 87–96.
19.
Wang
,
J. Z.
and
Socie
,
D. F
, “
Failure Strength and Damage Mechanisms of E-Glass/Epoxy Laminates under In-plane Biaxial Compressive Deformation
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
27
, No.
1
,
1993
, pp. 40–58.
20.
Garbo
,
S. P.
and
Ogonowski
,
J. M.
, “
Strength Predictions of Composite Laminates with Unloaded Fastener Holes
,”
AIAA Journal
 0001-1452, Vol.
18
, No.
5
,
1980
, pp. 585–589.
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