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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure
By
NL Nagda
NL Nagda
1
ICF Incorporated
,
vice president, 9300 Lee Highway, Fairfax, VA 22031
;
symposium chairman
.
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-1875-9
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1875-1
No. of Pages:
308
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1993

This paper presents the latest developments in the modeling of population exposures to airborne pollutants in indoor environments. Population exposure estimates are composed of three basic components: (1) human activity patterns, (2) microenvironmental (primarily indoor) concentration distributions, and (3) ambient (primarily background or outdoor) concentration distributions. Human activity pattern data and concentration distribution data may be derived from experiments or by simulation. This paper reports the progress made in combining the above three components of exposure in a simulation model. Exposure estimation is a precursor to dose determination. The latest results in our attempts to incorporate pharmacokinetic modules into human exposure models are presented.

1.
Hartwell
,
T. D.
,
Study of Carbon Monoxide Exposure to Residents of Washington, DC and Denver, CO, Part I
,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
, PB84-183516,
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Research Triangle Park (EMSL-RTP)
,
1984
.
2.
Hartwell
,
T. D.
,
Clayton
,
C. A.
,
Michie
,
R. M.
, Jr.
,
Whitmore
,
R.
,
Zelon
,
H. S.
, and
Whitehurst
,
D. A.
, “
Study of Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Residents of Washington, DC
,” Paper 84-121.4,
Proceedings
, 77th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,
1984
.
3.
Pellizarri
,
E. D.
,
Perritt
,
K.
,
Hartwell
,
T. D.
,
Michael
,
L. C.
,
Whitmore
,
R.
,
Handy
,
R. W.
,
Smith
,
D.
, and
Zelon
,
H.
,
Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Elizabeth and Bayonne, NJ, Devils Lake, ND, and Greensboro, NC.
, Vol.
II
,
U.S. EPA
,
Washington, DC
,
1987
.
4.
Pellizarri
,
E. D.
,
Perritt
,
K.
,
Hartwell
,
T. D.
,
Michael
,
L. C.
,
Whitmore
,
R.
,
Handy
,
R. W.
,
Smith
,
D.
, and
Zelon
,
H.
,
Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Selected Communities in Northern and Southern California
, Vol.
III
,
U.S. EPA
,
Washington, DC
,
1987
.
5.
Wallace
,
L. A.
, “
Personal Exposures, Indoor and Outdoor Air Concentrations, and Exhaled Breath Concentrations of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Measured for 600 Residents of New Jersey, North Dakota, North Carolina, and California
,”
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Benzene Bibliographic Library Information Service (EPA-ORD BBLIS)
, Citation 017,
Washington
,
1986
.
6.
Wallace
,
L. A.
,
The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and Analysis: Volume I
,
U.S. EPA
,
Washington, DC
,
1987
.
7.
Chen
,
C. W.
and
Blancato
,
J. N.
, “
Incorporation of Biological Mechanisms in Cancer Risk Assessment: Example—Vinyl Chloride
,”
Cell Biology and Toxicology
, Vol.
5
, No.
4
,
1989
, pp. 417–444.
8.
Chen
,
C. W.
and
Blancato
,
J. N.
, “
Role of Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Risk Assessment: Perchlorethylene as an Example
,”
Pharmacokinetics in Risk Assessment
,
National Academy Press
,
1987
.
9.
Blancato
,
J. N.
and
Rhomberg
,
L.
, “
The Impact of Pharmacokinetics on the Risk Assessment of Dichloromethane
,”
Biological Data for Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Risk Assessment
, U.S. EPA 600/3-90/019,
U.S. EPA
,
Washington, DC
,
1989
.
10.
Corley
,
R. A.
,
Mendrala
,
A. L.
,
Smith
,
F. A.
,
Stoats
,
D. A.
,
Cargos
,
M. L.
,
Connolly
,
R. B.
,
Andersen
,
M. E.
, and
Reitz
,
R. H.
, “
Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Chloroform
,”
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
, Vol.
103
,
1990
, pp. 512–527.
11.
Reitz
,
R. H.
,
Mendrala
,
A. L.
,
Gorier
,
R. A.
,
Quast
,
J. F.
,
Gargas
,
M. L.
,
Andersen
,
M. E.
,
Stoats
,
D. A.
, and
Connolly
,
R. B.
, “
Estimating the Risk of Liver Cancer Associated with Human Exposures to Chloroform Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
,”
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
, Vol.
105
,
1990
, pp. 443–459.
12.
Behar
,
J. V.
,
Thomas
,
J.
, and
Pandian
,
M. D.
, “
Benzene Exposure Assessment Model (BEAM) (2nd Interim Report)
,” U.S. EPA 600/X-90/027,
U.S. EPA
,
1991
.
13.
Behar
,
J. V.
,
Thomas
,
J.
, and
Pandian
,
M. D.
, “
Benzene Exposure Assessment Model (BEAM) (3rd Report)
,” U.S. EPA 600/X-91/091,
U.S. EPA
, Washington, DC,
1991
.
14.
Thomas
,
J.
,
Pandian
,
M. D.
,
Behar
,
J. V.
,
Rheingrover
,
S.
,
Hunt
,
H.
, and
Ziegenfus
,
R. C.
, “
Interim Report on Benzene Exposure Assessment Model (BEAM)
,” U.S. EPA 600/X-89/015,
U.S. EPA
, Washington, DC,
1989
.
15.
Robinson
,
J. P.
and
Thomas
,
J.
, “
Time Spent in Activities, Locations, and Microenvironments: A California-National Comparison
,” U.S. EPA 600/4-91/006,
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), U.S. EPA
,
Las Vegas, NV
,
1991
.
16.
Shikiya
,
D. C.
,
Liu
,
C. S.
,
Kahn
,
M. I.
,
Juarros
,
J.
, and
Barcikowski
,
W.
,
In-Vehicle Air Toxics Characterization Study in the South Coast Air Quality Management District, El Monte, California
, South Coast Air Quality Management District, El Monte, CA,
1989
.
17.
Travis
,
C. C.
,
Craig
,
P. H.
, and
Bowers
,
J. C.
, “
Characterization of Human Exposure to Ambient Levels of Benzene Using Pulmonary ‘Wash-Out Data’
,”
Atmospheric Environment
 1352-2310, Vol.
25A
, No.
8
,
1991
, pp. 1643–1647.
18.
Best and Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice
,
West
John B.
, Ed.,
Williams and Wilkins
,
Baltimore, Hong Kong, London, Sydney
,
1991
.
19.
Medinsky
,
M. A.
,
Sobourin
,
P. J.
,
Lacier
,
G.
,
Birnbaum
,
L. S.
, and
Henderson
,
R. F.
, “
A Physiological Model for Simulation of Benzene Metabolism by Rats and Mice
,”
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
, Vol.
99
,
1989
, pp. 193–206.
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