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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure
By
NL Nagda
NL Nagda
1
ICF Incorporated
,
vice president, 9300 Lee Highway, Fairfax, VA 22031
;
symposium chairman
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1875-9
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1875-1
No. of Pages:
308
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1993

A user-friendly computer model is being developed to estimate the distribution of Californians' indoor exposures to various pollutants. The model will be capable of operating at three levels. Level 1 will sum estimated inhalation exposures across multiple indoor locations to ultimately yield a population distribution of “total indoor air” exposures, that is, the portion of total (24-h) exposure associated with time spent indoors. Level 2 will link randomly selected location/activity profiles, collected in several California surveys, with measured or modeled concentration distributions, resulting in estimated exposure distributions for specific indoor locations such as residential environments. For each sampled location/activity profile, both time-integrated inhalation exposure and potential inhaled dose will be estimated. Level 3 will estimate concentration distributions for pollutants in locations for which measured concentrations are not available, based on the principle of conservation of mass. All information required for a model run will be supplied through a user interface. Options will be provided to save files relating to choices and inputs for a given run, so that all or selected parts of a run can be replicated. Providing this capability within Level 3 of the model will allow the user to make a series of related runs aimed at assessing the impact of one or more potential mitigation strategies.

1.
Johnson
,
T.
and
Paul
,
R. A.
,
The NAAQS Exposure Model (NEM) Applied to Carbon Monoxide
, Report EPA-450/4-83-003,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
, Research Triangle Park, NC,
1983
.
2.
Axley
,
J.
, “
Progress Toward a General Analytical Model for Predicting Indoor Air Pollution in Buildings: Phase III Report
,” Report NBSIR 88-3814,
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
, Gaithersburg, MD,
1988
.
3.
Sparks
,
L. E.
, “
Indoor Air Model Version 1.0
,” Report EPA 600/8-88-097a,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
, Research Triangle Park, NC,
1988
.
4.
Ensor
,
D. S.
,
Yakamoto
,
T.
,
Lawless
,
D. A.
, “
Indoor Air Quality Simulator for Personal Computers
,” Paper 89-82.1,
Proceedings
, 82nd Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association,
1989
.
5.
Koontz
,
M. D.
and
Nagda
,
N. L.
, “
A Multichamber Model for Assessing Consumer Inhalation Exposure
,”
Indoor Air
, Vol.
4
,
1991
, pp. 593–605.
6.
Nagda
,
N. L.
,
Rector
,
H. E.
, and
Koontz
,
M. D.
,
Guidelines for Monitoring Indoor Air Quality
,
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation
,
New York
,
1987
.
7.
Traynor
,
G. T.
,
Aceti
,
J. C.
, and
Apte
,
M. G.
, “
Macromodel for Assessing Residential Concentrations of Combustion-Generated Pollutants: Model Development and Preliminary Predictions for CO, NO2, and Respirable Suspended Particles
,” Report LBL-25211,
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
, Berkeley, CA,
1989
.
8.
Jenkins
,
P. L.
,
Phillips
,
T. J.
,
Mulberg
,
E. J.
, and
Hui
,
S. P.
, “
Activity Patterns of Californians: Use of and Proximity to Indoor Pollutant Sources
,”
Atmospheric Environment
 1352-2310, Vol.
26A
, No.
12
,
1992
, pp. 2141–2148.
9.
Phillips
,
T. J.
,
Jenkins
,
P. L.
, and
Mulberg
,
E. J.
, “
Children in California: Activity Patterns and Presence of Pollutant Sources
,” Paper 91-172.5,
Proceedings
, 84th Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association,
1991
.
10.
Dietz
,
R. N.
and
Cote
,
E. A.
, “
An Inexpensive Perfluorcarbon Tracer Technique for Wide-Scale Infiltration Measurements in Homes
,”
Environment International
, Vol.
8
,
1982
, pp. 419–433.
11.
Wallace
,
L. A.
, “
The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and Analysis: Volume I
,” Report EPA-600/6-87-002a, Washington, DC,
1987
.
12.
Wilson
,
A. L.
,
Colome
,
S. D.
,
Baker
,
P. E.
, and
Becker
,
G. W.
,
Residential Indoor Air Quality Study of Nitrogen Dioxide: Phase I Final Report
, prepared for
Southern California Gas Company
, Los Angeles, CA,
1986
.
13.
Berkeley Solar Group and Xenergy
,
Occupancy Patterns & Energy Consumption in California Houses (1984–1988)
, Report P400-90-009, prepared for California Energy Commission under Contract 400-87-015,
1990
.
14.
Mahone
,
E. E.
,
Mort
,
D. W.
,
Alereza
,
T.
,
Pilot Residential Air Exchange Survey—Task 2: Pilot Infiltration Study
, prepared for California Energy Commission under Contract 400-88-020,
1990
.
15.
Nazaroff
,
W. W.
and
Cass
,
G. R.
, “
Mathematical Modeling of Chemically Reactive Pollutants in Indoor Air
,”
Environmental Science and Technology
 0013-936X, Vol.
20
, No.
9
,
1986
, pp. 924–934.
16.
Nazaroff
,
W. W.
and
Cass
,
G. R.
, “
Mathematical Modeling of Indoor Aerosol Dynamics
,”
Environmental Science and Technology
 0013-936X, Vol.
23
, No.
2
,
1989
, pp. 157–166.
17.
Guo
,
Z.
,
Dunn
,
J. E.
,
Tichenor
,
B. A.
, “
On Representing Reversible Sinks in Indoor Air Quality Models
,”
Indoor Air '90
, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Vol.
4
,
1990
, pp. 177–182.
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