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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Damage Detection in Composite Materials
By
JE Masters
JE Masters
1
Staff Engineer
,
Lockheed Engineering and Science Company, NASA Langley Research Center
,
Hampton, VA
;
symposium chairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1474-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1474-6
No. of Pages:
287
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1992

The applicability of mechanical spectroscopy as a potential complementary technique to characterize damage and fatigue response of fiber-reinforced laminates was investigated. The interaction between damage induced by cyclic mechanical loads and time-dependent behavior was examined [1,2]. The magnitude and nature of the damage and mechanical response were evaluated.

The effects of fatigue damage on the time, temperature, and frequency response of fiber-reinforced laminates were measured by performing dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests on composite coupons which had been subjected to different amounts of fatigue loading and which exhibit varying degrees of fatigue-induced damage. Creep tests at different temperatures were conducted. Frequency multiplexing was accomplished over a temperature range encompassing the glass transition temperature. The effects of frequency on the temperature transitions of the loss and storage moduli were observed.

The DMA test results were interpreted in light of other conventional measures of fatigue response, such as change in dynamic stiffness and residual strength, and compared to nondestructive evaluation data of the different damage modes present in the laminates.

This paper includes a discussion of the applicability of DMA as a potential test methodology to investigate the effects of fatigue-induced damage on the viscoelastic behavior of fiber-reinforced laminates.

1.
Osiroff
,
R.
,
Stinchcomb
,
W. W.
, and
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
, “
Damorheology: Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Composite Laminates
,”
Composite Material Systems
, Proceedings of the American Society for Composites, 4th Technical Conference,
Blacksburg, VA
,
10
1989
.
2.
Osiroff
,
R.
, “
Damorheology: Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Composite Materials
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
College of Engineering, VPI&SU
, Blacksburg, VA,
06
1990
.
3.
Henneke
,
E. G.
, “
Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber Reinforced Composite Laminates
,”
Proceedings
, 11th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Vol.
2
,
ASNT
,
Las Vegas, NV
,
1985
, pp. 1332–1343.
4.
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
and
Stinchcomb
,
W. W.
, “
Stiffness Change as a Fatigue Damage Parameter for Composite Laminates
,”
Advances in Aerospace Structures, Materials and Dynamics
,
Yuceoglu
U.
,
Sierakowski
R. L.
, and
Glasgow
D. A.
, Eds.,
ASME
,
New York
,
1983
.
5.
Ting
,
T. C. T.
, “
Dynamic Response of Composites
,”
Applied Mechanics Update
,
Steele
C. R.
and
Springer
G. S.
, Eds.,
ASME
,
New York
,
1986
.
6.
Heller
,
R. A.
,
Thakker
,
A. B.
, and
Arthur
,
C. E.
, “
Temperature Dependence of the Complex Modulus for Fiber Reinforced Materials
,”
Composite Reliability
, ASTM STP 580,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1975
.
7.
Travis
,
A. R.
,
Wang
,
S. F.
, and
Ogale
,
A. A.
, “
Influence of Aging on Dynamic and Fracture Properties of Polymer Composites
,”
Materials—Pathway to the Future
, 33rd International SAMPE Symposium,
Carrillo
G.
et al, Eds.,
Anaheim, CA
, 7–10 March 1988.
8.
Suzuki
,
Y.
and
Saitoh
,
J.
, “
Characterization of Cowoven Fabrics Using Dynamic Mechanical Spectroscopy
,”
Proceedings
, 34th International SAMPE Symposium, 8–11 May 1989.
9.
Banerjee
,
A.
,
Ogale
,
A. A.
, and
Edie
,
D. D.
, “
Interfacial Characterization of Composites by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
,”
Proceedings
, 34th International SAMPE Symposium, 8–11 May 1989,
SAMPE
,
Reno, NV
.
10.
Chua
,
P. S.
, “
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Studies of the Interphase
,”
Polymer Composites
, Vol.
8
, No.
5
,
10
1987
, pp. 308–313.
11.
Silverman
,
E. M.
and
Jones
,
R. J.
, “
Graphite Thermoplastic Composites for Spacecraft Applications
,”
Materials—Pathway to the Future
, 33rd International SAMPE Symposium,
Carrillo
G.
et al, Eds.,
Anaheim, CA
, 7–10 March 1988,
SAMPE
,
Reno, NV
.
12.
Kachanov
,
L. M.
,
Introduction to Continuum Damage Mechanics
,
Martinus Nijhoff
,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands
,
1986
.
13.
Rabotonov
,
Y. N.
,
Creep Problems in Structural Members
, New York,
1969
.
14.
Sidoroff
,
F.
, “
Fatigue Damage Modeling of Composite Materials From Bending Tests
,”
International and European Conferences on Composite Materials
,
07
1987
,
London, UK
, Vol.
4
,
Matthews
F. L.
et al, Eds.,
Elsevier
,
New York
,
1987
.
15.
Beaumont
,
P. W. R.
, “
The Fatigue Damage Mechanics of Composite Laminates
,”
Damage Mechanics in Composites
,
Wang
A. S. D.
and
Haritos
G. K.
, Eds.,
ASME WAM
,
Boston, MA
,
12
1987
.
16.
Withworth
,
H. A.
, “
Cumulative Damage in Composites
,”
Recent Advances in the Macro and Micro-Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures
,
ASME WAM
,
Hui
D.
,
Vinson
J. R.
, Eds.,
Chicago, IL
,
11
1988
.
17.
Allen
,
D. H.
,
Groves
,
S. C.
, and
Harris
,
C. E.
, “
A Cumulative Damage Model for Continuous Fiber Composite Laminates with Matrix Cracking and Interply Delaminations
,”
Composite Materials: Testing and Design, Eighth Conference
, ASTM STP 972,
Whitcomb
J. D.
, Ed.,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1988
.
18.
Engblom
,
J. J.
, “
Modeling the Effects of Intraply Cracking in Composite Laminates at the Sublaminate Level
,”
Design and Analysis of Composite Material Vessels
, ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference, 28 June–2 July 1987,
Hui
D.
and
Kozik
T. J.
, Eds.,
ASME
,
New York
, pp. 105–115.
19.
Weitsman
,
Y.
, “
A Continuum Damage Model for Viscoelastic Materials
,”
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936,
12
1988
, Vol.
55
, pp. 773–780.
20.
Schapery
,
R. A.
, “
Further Development of a Thermodynamic Constitutive Theory: Stress Formulation
,”
Purdue Research Foundation, Project 4958
,
West Lafayette, IN
,
1969
.
21.
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
and
Williams
,
R. S.
, “
Determination of Fatigue Related Heat Emission in Composite Materials
,”
Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
14
, No.
12
,
12
1974
, pp. 479–485.
22.
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
,
Stinchcomb
,
W. W.
,
Marcus
,
L. A.
, and
Williams
,
R. S.
, “
Frequency Effects on Flawed Composite Fatigue Reliability
,”
Composite Reliability
, ASTM STP 580,
Wu
E. M.
, Ed.,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1975
.
23.
Stinchcomb
,
W. W.
,
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
,
Marcus
,
L. A.
, and
Williams
,
R. S.
, “
Effect of Cyclic Frequency on the Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials
,” AFOSR-TR 73-1907,
1973
.
24.
Davies
,
M.
,
Leach
,
D. C.
,
Moore
,
D. R.
, and
Turner
,
R. M.
, “
Mechanical Performance of Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Elevated Temperature Service
,”
International and European Conferences on Composite Materials
,
07
1987
,
London, UK
, Vol.
1
,
Matthews
F. L.
et al, Eds.,
Elsevier
,
New York
,
1987
.
25.
Putter
,
S.
,
Buchanan
,
D. L.
, and
Rehfield
,
L. W.
, “
Influence of Frequency and Environmental Conditions on Dynamic Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Composites
,”
Composite Materials: Testing and Design (6th Conference)
, ASTM STP 787,
Daniel
I. M.
, Ed.,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
.
26.
Adams
,
R. D.
,
Walton
,
D.
,
Flitcroft
,
J. E.
, and
Short
,
D.
, “
Vibration Testing as a Nondestructive Test Tool for Composite Materials
,”
Composite Reliability
, ASTM STP 580,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1975
.
27.
Drew
,
R. C.
and
White
,
R. G.
, “
An Experimental Investigation into Damage Propagation and Its Effects Upon Dynamic Properties in CFRP Composite Materials
,”
Composite Structures 4
, Vol.
2
,
Marshall
I. H.
, Ed.,
Elsevier
,
New York
,
1987
.
28.
Sims
,
G. D.
and
Bascombe
,
D.
, “
Continuous Monitoring of Fatigue Degradation in Composites by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
,”
International and European Conferences on Composite Materials
,
07
1987
,
London, UK
, Vol.
4
,
Matthews
F. L.
et al, Ed.,
Elsevier
,
New York
,
1987
.
29.
Ke
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
S.
,
Meng
,
X.
,
Su
,
B.
, and
Tian
,
X.
, “
Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Epoxy Composites
,”
Proceedings, International Symposium on Composite Materials and Structures
,
Sun
C. T.
and
Loo
T. T.
, Eds.,
06
1986
,
Beijing, China, Technomic, Westport, CT
,
1986
.
30.
DuPont Instruments Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer 983
,
Operator's Manual
,
DuPont
,
Wilmington, DE
,
11
1986
.
31.
Theocaris
,
P. S.
,
The Mesophase Concept in Composites
, Chapter 7,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
,
1987
, pp. 125–131.
32.
Leaderman
,
H.
, “
Elastic and Creep Properties of Filamentous Materials and Other High Polymers
,”
The Textile Foundation
,
Washington
,
1983
.
33.
Stinchcomb
,
W. W.
and
Reifsnider
,
K. L.
, “
Fatigue Damage Mechanics in Composite Materials: A Review
,”
Fatigue Mechanisms
, ASTM STP 675,
Fong
J. F.
, Ed.,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
,
1979
, pp. 762–787.
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