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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Materials Characterization by Thermomechanical Analysis
By
AT Riga
AT Riga
1
Lubrizol Corporation
?
Wickliffe, OH 44092
Search for other works by this author on:
MC Neag
MC Neag
2
Glidden Company
?
Strongsville, OH 44136
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-1434-6
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1434-0
No. of Pages:
203
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1991

Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) has been used to study a wide spectrum of materials over a broad range of temperatures in our laboratories. Polymers, motor oil-wax composites, ceramics, alloys, and metals have been studied from -100 to 600°C. The TMA properties that have been measured are the glass transition temperature, softening point, coefficients of linear expansion, heat deflection temperatures, creep modulus (compliance) and relaxation, degree of cure, viscoelastic behavior, dilatometric properties, melting temperature, Curie, and Neel magnetic transition temperatures and properties.

Polymer cure has been studied and is indicated by variations in the glass transition temperature and increased with heat cycling. A good correlation exists between ASTM Vicat softening temperatures and heat deflection temperatures under load with TMA transition temperatures, which approximate strength and Tg. A scheme has been developed to rank commercial polymers based on their creep modulus and creep recovery. There is a good correlation between the TMA creep properties and the known tensile properties of commercial polymers.

Additive-treated oil forms short stubby wax crystals, which lead to a low creep modulus oil-wax composite at -60°C. This soft composite (gel) melts at a depressed temperature. These TMA properties have been related to low-temperature pumpability and engine performance.

The critical magnetic transition temperatures (Curie and Neel) of a number of ceramics and alloys have been determined by TMA. There is a good correlation between the TMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and literature critical magnetic temperatures. The mechanism responsible for magnetic changes in the paramagnetic state has been elucidated from TMA expansion rates and DSC exothermicity.

1.
Riga
,
A. T.
, “
Inhibitor Selection for Vinyl Monomers by DSC
,”
Polymer Engineering Science
 0032-3888, Vol.
18
No.
12
,
1976
, p. 836.
2.
Riga
,
A. T.
, “
Thermal Analysis as an Aid to Monomer Plant Design
,”
Polymer Engineering Science
 0032-3888, Vol.
15
, No.
5
,
1975
, p. 349.
3.
Riga
,
A. T.
, “
Heat Distortion and Mechanical Properties of Polymers by Thermomechanical Analysis
,”
Polymer Engineering Science
 0032-3888, Vol.
14
, No.
11
,
1974
, p. 764.
4.
Riga
,
A. T.
and
Collins
,
E. A.
, “
Analysis of Structure
,”
Engineering Plastics
, Vol.
2
,
1988
, p. 824.
5.
Grieve
,
W.
and
Riga
,
A. T.
,
Instsrumental Analysis of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers
, Special Training Course Book,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
, 1986–1991.
6.
Riga
,
A. T.
,
Tschantz
,
P. L.
, and
Baczek
,
S. K.
,
Low Temperature Properties of Motor Oils: A Fundamental Approach to Elucidate Pumpability Phenomena, 15th NATAS Preprints
,
1986
.
7.
Riga
,
A. T.
,
Breslin
,
M.
, and
Tseng
,
W.
,
Magnetic Transition Temperatures and Properties of Metals, Oxides and Alloys by TMA and DSC, NATAS Preprints
, 9th, 1980, and 15th, 1987.
8.
Riga
,
A. T.
,
Collins
,
E. A.
,
Patterson
,
G. H.
, and
Neag
,
M.
,
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymers, 17th NATAS Preprints
,
1988
.
9.
Riga
,
A. T.
,
Patterson
,
G. H.
, and
Kornbrekke
,
R.
,
High Temperature Reactions of Carbonates with a Model Iron Surface, 18th NATAS Preprints
,
1989
.
10.
Billmeyer
,
F.
,
Textbook of Polymer Science
, 2nd ed.,
Wiley-Interscience
,
New York
,
1981
.
11.
Nielsen
,
W.
,
Mechanical Properties of Polymers
,
Wiley-Interscience
,
New York
,
1973
.
12.
Fox
,
T. G.
,
Gratch
,
S.
, and
Loshaek
,
S.
, “
Viscosity Relationships for Polymers in Bulk and in Concentrated Solution
,” Chapter 12,
Rheology-Theory and Applications
,
Eirich
F. R.
, Ed., Vol.
1
,
Academic Press
,
New York
,
1956
.
13.
AMPSNa® is the registered name of 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid, sodium salt by
Lubrizol Corporation
, Wickliffe, OH.
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