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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture (Third Volume)
By
TK O'Brien
TK O'Brien
1
U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate (AVSCOM), NASA Langley Research Center
,
Hampton, Virginia
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1419-2
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1419-7
No. of Pages:
838
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1991

Delamination is a predominant failure mode in continuous fiber-reinforced laminated composite structures. Based on the location and direction of growth, there are two distinct types of delamination, namely, free edge delamination and local or transverse crack tip delamination. In many cases, both types occur concurrently with varying levels of interaction. In this paper, a shear deformation model including hygrothermal effects is developed for the analysis of local delaminations originating from transverse cracks in 90° plies located in and around the laminate midplane. A sublaminate approach is used and the model is applied to (±25/90n)s T300/934 graphite/epoxy laminates for n values between 0.5 and 8, along with previously developed edge delamination shear deformation models. Critical loads and delamination modes are identified and compared with experimental results. Hygrothermal effects are included in all the models to make the comparisons realistic.

1.
Wilkins
,
D. J.
,
Eisemann
,
J. R.
,
Camin
,
R. A.
,
Margolis
,
W. S.
, and
Benson
,
R. A.
, “
Characterizing Delamination Growth in Graphite-Epoxy
,”
Damage in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 775,
Reifsnider
K. L.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
, pp. 168–183.
2.
O'Brien
,
T. K.
, “
Mixed-Mode Strain Energy Release Rate Effects on Edge Delamination of Composites
,”
Effects of Defects in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 836,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1984
, pp. 125–142.
3.
Wang
,
S. S.
and
Choi
,
I.
, “
The Mechanics of Delamination in Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials, Part II—Delamination Behavior and Fracture Mechanics Parameters
,” NASA CR-172270,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
, Washington, DC,
1983
.
4.
Wang
,
S. S.
, “
Edge Delamination in Angle Ply Composite Laminates
,”
Proceedings
, Twenty-Second AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference,
Atlanta
, 6–8 April 1981, pp. 473–484.
5.
O'Brien
,
T. K.
, “
Characterization of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Composite Laminate
,”
Damage in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 775,
Reifsnider
K. L.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
, pp. 140–167.
6.
Armanios
,
E. A.
and
Rehfield
,
L. W.
, “
Sublaminate Analysis of Interlaminar Fracture in Composites: Part I—Analytical Model
,”
Journal of Composites Technology and Research
 0884-6804, Vol.
11
, No.
4
,
1989
, pp. 135–146.
7.
Armanios
,
E. A.
,
Rehfield
,
L. W.
,
Raju
,
I. S.
, and
O'Brien
,
T. K.
, “
Sublaminate Analysis of Interlaminar Fracture in Composites: Part II—Applications
,”
Journal of Composites Technology and Research
 0884-6804, Vol.
11
, No.
4
,
1989
, pp. 147–153.
8.
Crossman
,
F. W.
and
Wang
,
A. S. D.
, “
The Dependence of Transverse Cracking and Delamination on Ply Thickness in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates
,”
Damage in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 775,
Reifsnider
K. L.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
, pp. 118–139.
9.
O'Brien
,
T. K.
, “
Analysis of Local Delaminations and their Influence on Composite Laminate Behavior
,”
Delamination and Debonding of Materials
, ASTM STP 876,
Johnson
W. S.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1985
, pp. 282–297.
10.
Law
,
G. E.
, “
A Mixed Mode Fracture Analysis of (±25/90n)s Graphite/Epoxy Composite Laminates
,”
Effects of Defects in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 836,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1984
, pp. 143–160.
11.
Wang
,
A. S. D.
,
Kishore
,
N. N.
, and
Li
,
C. A.
, “
Crack Development in Graphite Epoxy Cross Ply Laminates under Uniaxial Tension
,”
Composites Science and Technology
, Vol.
24
, No.
1
,
1985
, pp. 1–31.
12.
Russell
,
A. J.
and
Street
,
K. N.
, “
Moisture and Temperature Effects on the Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy
,”
Delamination and Debonding of Materials
, ASTM STP 876,
Johnson
W. S.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1985
, pp. 349–370.
13.
O'Brien
,
T. K.
,
Raju
,
I. S.
, and
Garber
,
D. P.
, “
Residual Thermal and Moisture Influences on the Strain Energy Release Rate Analysis of Edge Delamination
,”
Journal of Composites Technology and Research
 0884-6804, Vol.
8
, No.
2
,
1986
, pp. 37–47.
14.
Armanios
,
E. A.
and
Mahler
,
M. A.
, “
Residual Thermal and Moisture Influences on the Free-Edge Delamination of Laminated Composites
,”
Proceedings
, Twenty Ninth AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference,
Williamsburg
, AIAA Paper 88-2259, 18–20 April 1988, pp. 371–381.
15.
Armanios
,
E. A.
and
Badir
,
A.
, “
Hygrothermal Influence on Mode I Edge Delamination in Composites
,”
Composite Structures
, Vol.
15
, No.
4
,
1990
, pp. 323–342.
16.
Whitney
,
J. M.
, “
Stress Analysis of Mode I Edge Delamination Specimen for Composite Materials
,”
AIAA Journal, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
 0001-1452, Vol.
24
, No.
7
,
1986
, pp. 1163–1168.
17.
Jones
,
R. M.
,
Mechanics of Composite Materials
,
McGraw Hill
,
New York
,
1974
.
18.
Sriram
,
P.
and
Armanios
,
E. A.
, “
Fracture Analysis of Local Delaminations in Laminated Composites
,”
Proceedings
, Thirtieth AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference,
Mobile, AL
, AIAA Paper 89-1400, 3–5 April 1989, pp. 2098–2108.
19.
Armanios
,
E. A.
,
Rehfield
,
L. W.
, and
Weinstein
,
F.
, “
Understanding and Predicting Sublaminate Damage Mechanisms in Composite Structures
,”
Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Ninth Volume)
, ASTM STP 1059,
Garbo
S. P.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1990
, pp. 231–249.
20.
Wang
,
A. S. D.
,
Kishore
,
N. N.
, and
Feng
,
W. W.
, “
On Mixed Mode Fracture in Off-Axis Unidirectional Graphite-Epoxy Composites
,”
Progress in Science and Engineering of Composites
,
Hayashi
T.
,
Kawata
K.
, and
Umekawa
S.
, Eds., International Conference on Composite Materials, ICCM-IV,
Tokyo
,
1982
, pp. 599–606.
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