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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Tribological Modeling for Mechanical Designers
By
K Ludema
K Ludema
1
University of Michigan
,
G.G. Brown Building Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125
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RG Bayer
RG Bayer
editor
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ISBN-10:
0-8031-1412-5
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1412-8
No. of Pages:
196
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1991

Tribologists tend to present friction and wear data as tabulations of values for specific ranges of test conditions. The conditions generally involve short test durations and express system loads in terms of applied forces. The designer, on the other hand, is concerned with stress levels and component durability, in particular time to failure. Because machine components are frequently exposed to cyclic stress conditions, fatigue effects cannot be ignored, especially in non-metallic materials containing residual flaw populations. Wear maps and transition diagrams are emerging as a convenient means of summarizing and presenting wear data in a form useful to designers. An extension of one of the diagrams to incorporate the effects of time on wear response is proposed and discussed.

1.
de Gee
,
A. W. J.
,
Begelinger
,
A.
, and
Salomon
,
G.
, “
Failure Mechanisms in Sliding Lubricated Concentrated Contacts
,” in Proceedings of the 11th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology,
Leeds
,
09
1984
,
Butterworth
,
London
,
1985
, pp. 105–116.
2.
Lim
,
S. C.
, and
Ashby
,
M. F.
, “
Wear Mechanism Maps
,”
Acta Metallurgica
, Vol.
35
, No.
1
,
01
1987
, pp. 1–24.
3.
Hsu
,
S. M.
,
Wang
,
Y. S.
, and
Munro
,
R. G.
, “
Quantitative Wear Maps as a Visualization of Wear Mechanism Transitions in Ceramic Materials
,”
Wear
 0043-1648, Vol.
134
, No.
1
,
11
1989
, pp. 1–11.
4.
Lucek
,
J. W.
, and
Hannoosh
,
J. G.
, “
Field Experience in Ceramic Bearings
,” in Engineered Materials for Advanced Friction and Wear Applications, ed.
Smidt
F. A
and
Blau
P. J.
,
ASM International
,
Metals Park, OH
,
1988
, pp. 205–208.
5.
Reece
,
M. J.
,
Guiu
,
F.
, and
Sammur
,
F. R.
, “
Cyclic Fatigue Crack Propagation in Alumina under Direct Tension-Compression Loading
,”
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
 0002-7820, Vol.
72
, No.
2
,
02
1989
, pp. 348–352.
6.
Dauskardt
,
R. H.
,
Yu
,
W.
, and
Ritchie
,
R. O.
, “
Fatigue Crack Propagation in Transformation-Toughened Zirconia Ceramic
,”
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
 0002-7820, Vol.
70
, No.
10
,
10
1987
, pp. C248–252.
7.
Liu
,
K. C.
, and
Brinkman
,
C. R.
, “
High Temperature Tensile and Fatigue Strengths of Silicon Nitride
,” in Proceedings of the Automotive Technology Development Contractors' Coordination Meeting.
Dearborn, MI
,
Society of Automotive Engineers
, in press.
8.
Han
,
L. X.
and
Suresh
,
S.
, “
High-Temperature Failure of an Alumina-Silicon Carbide Composite under Cyclic Loads:Mechanisms of Fatigue Crack-Tip Damage
,”
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
 0002-7820, Vol.
72
, No.
7
,
07
1989
, pp. 1233–1238.
9.
Brookes
,
C. A.
, and
Parry
,
A. R.
, “
Some Fundamental Aspects of the Mechanical Wear of Hard Ceramic Crystals due to Sliding
,”
Materials Science and Engineering
 0025-5416, Vol.
A105/106
,
11
1988
, pp. 143–150.
10.
de Gee
,
A. W. J.
,
Begelinger
,
A.
, and
Salomon
,
G.
, “
Lubricated Wear of Steel Point Contacts — Application to the Transition Diagram
” Wear of Materials 1983, ed.
Ludema
K. C.
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
,
1983
, pp. 534–540.
11.
Gardos
,
M. N.
, “
On Ceramic Triboiogy
,”
Lubrication Engineering
, Vol.
44
, No.
5
,
05
1988
, pp. 400–407.
12.
Dill
,
J. F.
, “
Extreme Measures: Tribological Testing in Hostile Environments
,”
Lubrication Engineering
, Vol.
44
, No.
12
,
12
1988
, pp. 1004–1009.
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