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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Test Methods and Design Allowables for Fibrous Composites: 2nd Volume
By
CC Chamis
CC Chamis
1Aerospace and Composite Structures,
NASA Lewis Research Center
,
Cleveland, OH 44135
;
symposium chairman and editor
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1196-7
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1196-7
No. of Pages:
301
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1989

Unlike metals, specimen preparation and test methods used for determining design allowables for fiber-reinforced composites are not fully developed or standardized for the industry. Test data depend on the test method, specimen design, composite fabrication method, and void content. The work described in this paper concerns standardizing test methods for the industry and reviews the present status of test methods for determining composite design allowables. Test methods available for tension, compression, and shear are summarized and advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Based on industry available data, recommendations are made as to which test methods are acceptable for determining design allowables and which test methods are suitable only for comparative purposes and quality control. Where available, test data obtained from different test methods or different specimen designs are discussed. Material characterization problems unique to composites, and test factors/conditions which affect the design allowables are also addressed.

1.
Munjal
,
A. K.
, “
Use of Fiber Reinforced Composites in Rocket Motor Industry
,” 17th National SAMPE Technical Conference,
10
1985
, pp. 371–385.
2.
Munjal
,
A. K.
,
Kulkarni
,
S. B.
, and
Starrett
,
H. S.
, “
Characterization of Filament Wound Kevlar and Glass Composites for Rocket Motor Applications
,” 29th National SAMPE Symposium,
1983
, pp. 324–337.
3.
Munjal
,
A. K.
,
Test Methods for Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Composites
, CPIA Publication 418, Vol.
1
, pp. 141–154, JANNAF CMCS/S&MBS Joint Meeting,
11
1984
.
4.
Chiao
,
T. T.
and
Hamstad
,
M. A.
, “
Testing of Fiber Composite Materials
,”
Proceedings of the 1975 International Conference on Composite Materials
, Vol.
2
,
AIME
,
Geneva, Switzerland
, 7–11 April 1975,
1976
, pp. 884–915.
5.
Adsit
,
N. R.
, “
Compression Testing of Graphite/Epoxy
,”
Compression Testing of Homogeneous Materials and Composites, STP 808
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1983
, pp. 175–186.
6.
Irion
,
M. N.
and
Adams
,
D. F.
, “
Compression Creep Testing of Unidirectional Composite Materials
,”
Composites
,
04
1981
, pp. 117–123.
7.
Sinclair
,
J. H.
and
Chamis
,
C. C.
, “
Compressive Behavior of Unidirectional Fibrous Composites
,”
Compression Testing of Homogeneous Materials and Composites, STP 808
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1983
, pp. 155–174.
8.
Lamothe
,
R. M.
and
Nunes
,
J.
, “
Evaluation of Fixturing for Compression Testing of Metal Matrix and Polymer/Epoxy Composites
,”
Compression Testing of Homogeneous Materials and Composites, STP 808
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1983
, pp. 241–253.
9.
Abdallah
,
M. G.
, “
State of the Art of Advanced Composite Materials: Compression Test Methods
,” CPIA Publication 418, Vol.
1
, pp. 121–139, JANNAF CMCS/S&MBS Joint meeting,
11
1984
.
10.
Herakovich
,
C. T.
,
Bergner
,
H. W.
, and
Bowles
,
D. E.
, “
A Comparative Study of Composite Shear Specimens Using the Finite Element Method
,”
Test Methods and Design Allowables for Fibrous Composites, STP 734
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1981
, pp. 129–151.
11.
Adams
,
D. F.
and
Thomas
,
R. L.
, “
Test Methods for the Determination of Unidirectional Composite Shear Properties
,” 12th National SAMPE Symposium, AC-5.
12.
Chiao
,
C. C.
,
Moore
,
R. L.
, and
Chiao
,
T. T.
, “
Measurement of Shear Properties of Fiber Composites-Evaluation of Test Methods
,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report UCRL-78486-1,
09
08
1976
.
13.
Allred
,
R. E.
,
Street
,
H. K.
, and
Martinez
,
R. J.
, “
Improvement of Transverse Composite Strength Test Specimen and Materials Development
,”
24th National SAMPE Symposium
,
05
1979
, p, 31.
14.
Kasen
,
M. B.
,
Schramm
,
R. E.
, and
Read
,
D. T.
, “
Fatigue of Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures
,”
Fatigue of Filamentary Composites, STP 636
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1977
, pp. 141–151.
15.
Whitney
,
J. M.
,
Daniel
,
I. M.
, and
Pipes
,
R. B.
,
Experimental Mechanics of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
,
The Society for Experimental Stress Analysis
,
Brookfield Center
,
CT
,
1982
.
16.
Shuart
,
M. J.
, “
An Evaluation of the Sandwich Beam Compression Test Method for Composites
,”
Test Methods and Design Allowables for Fibrous Composites, STP 734
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1981
, pp. 152–165.
17.
Advanced Composites Design Guide
,
Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
,
Dayton, OH
,
1977
.
18.
Walrath
,
D. E.
and
Adams
,
D. F.
, “
The Iosipescu Shear Test as Applied to Composite Materials
,”
Experimental Mechanics
,
03
1983
, pp. 105–110.
19.
Greszczuk
,
L. B.
, “
Applications of Four-Point Ring-Twist Test for Determining Shear Modulus of Filamentary Composites
,”
Test Methods and Design Allowables for Fibrous Composites, STP 734
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
, pp. 21–33.
20.
Clements
,
L. L.
and
Chiao
,
T. T.
, “
Engineering Design Data for an Organic Fiber/Epoxy Composite
,”
Composites
, Vol.
8
, No.
2
,
04
1977
, pp. 87–92.
21.
Gruber
,
M. B.
,
Chou
,
T. W.
, and
Overbeeke
,
I. L.
, “
A Reusable Sandwich Beam for Composite Compression Test
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
, Vol.
16
,
05
1982
, pp. 162–171.
22.
Swanson
,
S. R.
,
Messick
,
M.
, and
Toombes
,
G. R.
, “
Comparison of Torsion Tube and Iosipescu InPlane Shear Test Results for a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite
,”
Composites
, Vol.
16
, No.
3
,
07
1985
, pp. 220–224.
23.
Chamis
,
C. C.
and
Sinclair
,
J. H.
, “
10° Off-Axis Tensile Test for Interlaminar Shear Characterization of Fiber Composites
,” NASA Technical Note D-8215,
1976
.
24.
Evaluation of Test Methods for the Mechanical Characterization of Filament-Wound Composites
,” JANNAF Composite Motor Case Subcommittee (CMCS) Joint Workshop, CPIA Publication 448,
02
1986
.
25.
Munjal
,
A. K.
, “
Optimization of Design Allowables for Composite Structures
,”
18th International SAMPE Technical Conference
,
10
1986
.
26.
Mumford
,
N. A.
,
Hopkins
,
P. C.
, and
Lloyd
,
B. A.
, “
Matrix/Fiber Interface Effects on Kevlar 49 Pressure Vessel Performance
,” Paper AIAA-82-1069, AIAA/SAE/ASME 18th Joint Propulsion Conference,
06
1982
.
27.
Judd
,
N. C. W.
and
Wright
,
W. W.
, “
Voids and their Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Composites—an Appraisal
,”
SAMPE Journal
 0091-1062, Jan./Feb. 1978, pp. 10–14.
28.
Allred
,
R. E.
and
Hill
,
N.
, “
Volume Fraction Determination of Kevlar 49/Epoxy Composites
,”
Polymer Engineering and Science
 0032-3888, Vol.
19
, No.
13
,
10
1979
, p. 907.
29.
Browning
,
C. E.
,
Abrams
,
F. L.
, and
Whitney
,
J. M.
, “
A Four-Point Shear Test for Graphite/Epoxy Composites
,”
Composite Materials: Quality Assurance and Processing, STP 797
,
Browning
C. E.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1983
, pp. 54–74.
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