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ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Analytical and Experimental Methods for Residual Stress Effects in Fatigue
By
RL Champoux
RL Champoux
1
Ceramic Binder Systems, Inc.
,
Butte, MT, symposium cochairman and co-editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
JA Kapp
JA Kapp
2
U.S. Army Benet Laboratories
,
Watervliet, NY, symposium cochairman and co-editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
JH Underwood
JH Underwood
3
U.S. Army Benet Laboratories
,
Watervliet, NY, symposium cochairman and co-editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-1195-9
ISBN:
978-0-8031-1195-0
No. of Pages:
142
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1988

The damage that leads to crack initiation under fatigue loading generally occurs at or near the surface. The macrostresses and microstrains induced by machining and surface treatments such as shot peening play an important role in the initiation process. The initial distribution and subsequent evolution of these stresses and strains also influence the growth of fatigue damage. A detailed study, carried out using two aluminum alloys (2024 T351 and 7075 T7351) with electrolytically polished, milled, or shot peened surfaces, has been undertaken at microscopic and macroscopic levels by X-ray measurements of residual stresses at each step of damage development. Acoustic emission has been used to detect the three stages of damage growth: plastic deformation of the surface, microcrack formation, and macrocracking.

The experiment pointed to the conclusion that the damage leading to crack initiation occurs in the following manner: (1) cyclic cold working of the surface with a rapid evolution of residual stresses, (2) stabilization of these stresses and plastic deformation of the surface layers, (3) the appearance of the first microcracks without any change in the residual stresses, and then, (4) the ascendency of one or two macrocracks with complete relaxation of the macrostresses in the close neighborhood of this macrocrack.

1.
Houssny-Eman
,
M.
, “
Etude de l'émission Acoustique Associée à la Déformation Plastique des Métaux sous Sollicitations Cycliques sous l'action de l'environnement. Applications sur les alliages d'aluminium 2618 AT651 et 2024 T351
,” Thèse de Docteur Ingénieur,
Université de Technologie de Compiègne
, Compiegne, France, 26 mars, 1981.
2.
Maeder
,
G.
,
Lebrun
,
J. L.
, and
Sprauel
,
J. M.
,
1981
, “
Present Possibilities for the X-ray Diffraction Method of Stress Measurement
,”
NDT International
, Paris,
1981
, pp. 235–247.
3.
Syren
,
B.
, “
Der Einfluß spanender Bearbeitung auf das Biegerwechselverformungsverhalten von Ck45 in verschiedenen Wärmebehandlungszusständen
,” Thèse de Docteur Ingénieur,
Université de Karlsrühe
, Karlsruhe, West Germany, 18 décembre, 1975.
4.
Hoffmann
,
J.
,
Starker
,
P.
, and
Macherauch
,
E.
, “
Eigenspannungstiefenverteilungen bei gefrästen aus AlCuMg2
,” Härterei Technische Mitteilungen, Beihelf,
1982
, p. 87, Eigenspannungen und Lastspannungen, Herausgegeben von V. Hauk und E. Macherauch.
5.
Maeder
,
G.
,
Lebrun
,
J. L.
, and
Diament
,
A.
, “
Caractérisation par Diffraction X d'une Couche Grenaillée
,” First International Conference on Shot Peening,
Paris
,
Pergamon Press
,
New York
,
09
1981
, pp. 263–269.
6.
Mattson
,
R. L.
and
Roberts
,
J. G.
, “
The Effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Stain-peening upon Fatigue Strength
,”
Proceedings of the Symposium On Internal Stresses and Fatigue of Metals
,
Rassweiler
G. M.
and
Grube
W. L.
, Eds.,
Detroit
,
1956
, pp. 337–360.
7.
Syren
,
B.
,
Wolhfahrt
,
H.
, and
Macherauch
,
E.
, “
The Influence of Residual Stresses and Surface Topography on Bending Fatigue Strength of Machined Ck45 in Different Heat Treated Conditions
,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials,
Boston
,
1976
,pp. 212–235.
8.
Starker
,
P.
,
Wolhfahrt
,
H.
, and
Macherauch
,
E.
, “
Subsurface Crack Initiation During Fatigue as a Result of Residual Stresses
,”
Fatigue of Engineering Materials and Structures
, Vol.
1
,
1979
, pp. 319–327.
9.
Evans
,
W. P.
,
Ricklefs
,
R. E.
, and
Millan
,
J. L.
, “
X-ray and Fatigue Studies of Hardened and Coldworked Steels
,”
Proceedings of the Symposium on Local Atomic Arrangement Studied by X-ray Diffraction
,
Cohen
J. B.
and
Hilliard
J. E.
, Eds.,
Chicago
,
02
1965
, pp. 351–377.
10.
Goto
,
T.
, “
Application of X-ray Stress Measurement to Pre-service Inspection and In-service Inspection
,”
2nd International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials
,
Boston
,
1976
, pp. 1614–1618.
11.
Starker
,
P.
,
Wohlfahrt
,
H.
, and
Macherauch
,
E.
, “
Biegenwechselfestigkeit und Grösseneffekt bei unterschiedlich wärmebehandelten strahlproben aus Ck45 nach Kugelstrahlen
,” First International Conference on Shot Peening,
Paris
,
Pergamon Press
,
New York
,
09
1981
, pp. 613–623.
12.
Schutz
,
W.
, “
Fatigue Life Improvement of High-strength Materials by Shot Peening
,” First Interna tional Conference on Shot Peening,
Paris
,
Pergamon Press
,
New York
,
09
1981
, pp. 423–433.
13.
Hirsh
,
T.
,
Vohringer
,
O.
, and
Macherauch
,
E.
, “
Bending Fatigue Behavior of Differently Heat Treated and Shot Peened AlCu5Mg2
,” Second International Conference on Shot Peening,
Fuchs
H. O.
, Ed.,
Chicago
,
05
1984
, pp. 90–101.
14.
Bergstrom
,
J.
and
Ericsson
,
T.
, “
Relaxation of Shot Peening Induced Compressive Stress during Fatigue in Notch Steel Samples
,” Second International Conference on Shot Peening,
Fuchs
H. O.
, Ed.,
Chicago
,
05
1984
, pp. 241–246.
15.
James
,
M. R.
and
Morris
,
W. R.
, “
Fatigue Induced Changes in Surface Residual Stress
,”
Scripta Metallurgica
, Vol.
17
, pp. 1101–1104.
16.
Taira
,
S.
, “
X-ray Examination During Fatigue
,”
Metal Science
,
1974
, No.
8
, pp. 234–236.
17.
Takechi
,
H.
,
Namba
,
K.
,
Kujiwara
,
K.
, and
Kawasaki
,
K.
, “
Evaluation of Subsurface Fatigue Damage in Strip Mill Rolls by X-ray Diffraction Method
,”
Transactions ISIJ
, No.
21
, pp. 92–99.
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