Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
ASTM Selected Technical Papers
Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Eighth Conference)
By
JD Whitcomb
JD Whitcomb
1
NASA Langley Research Center
,
Hampton, VA 23665-5225
;
symposium chairman and editor
.
Search for other works by this author on:
ISBN-10:
0-8031-0980-6
ISBN:
978-0-8031-0980-3
No. of Pages:
476
Publisher:
ASTM International
Publication date:
1988

Experimental evidence has shown that significant stiffness loss occurs in graphite/epoxy laminates when matrix cracking and interply delaminations exist. Therefore, a cumulative damage model for predicting stiffness loss in graphite/epoxy laminates is proposed herein by applying a thermomechanical constitutive theory for elastic composites with distributed damage. The model proceeds from a continuum mechanics and thermodynamics approach wherein the distributed damage is characterized by a set of second-order tensor-valued internal state variables. The internal state variables represent locally averaged measures of matrix cracking and interply delaminations. The model formulation provides a set of damage dependent laminated plate equations. These are developed by modifying the classical Kirchhoff plate theory. The effect of the matrix cracking enters the formulation through alteration in the individual lamina constitution. The effect of interply delamination enters the formulation through modifications of the Kirchhoff displacements. The corresponding internal state variables are defined utilizing the kinematics of the interply delaminated region and the divergence theorem. These internal state variables depend on the components of the displacements created by the delamination.

1.
Chou
,
P. C.
,
Wang
,
A. S. D.
, and
Miller
,
H.
, “
Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials
,” AFWAL-TR-82-4083,
Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories
,
Dayton, OH
,
04
1982
.
2.
Waddoups
,
M. E.
,
Eisenmann
,
J. R.
, and
Kaminski
,
B. E.
, “
Macroscopic Fracture Mechanics of Advanced Composite Materials
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
 0021-9983, Vol.
5
,
1971
, pp. 446-454.
3.
Hahn
,
H. T.
, “
Fracture Behavior of Composite Laminates
,”
Proceedings
,
International Conference on Fracture Mechanics and Technology
,
Sigthoff, Noordhoff
,
Hong Kong
,
1977
.
4.
Morris
,
D. H.
and
Hahn
,
H. T.
, “
Fracture Resistance Characterization of Graphite/Epoxy Composites
,”
Composite Materials: Testing and Design
, ASTM STP 617.
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1977
, pp. 5-17.
5.
Yeow
,
Y. T.
,
Morris
,
D. H.
, and
Brinson
,
H. F.
, “
The Fracture Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates
,”
Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
19
,
1979
, pp. 1-8.
6.
Schapery
,
R. A.
, “
Models for Damage Growth and Fracture in Nonlinear Viscoelastic Particulate Composites
,” MM-3168-82-5,
Mechanics and Materials Center, Texas A&M University
,
College Station, TX
,
08
1982
.
7.
Schapery
,
R. A.
, “
Continuum Aspects of Crack Growth in Time Dependent Materials
,” MM-4665-83-2,
Mechanics and Materials Center, Texas A&M University
,
College Station, TX
,
02
1983
.
8.
Chou
,
P. C.
and
Croman
,
R.
, “
Residual Strength in Fatigue Based on the Strength-Life Equal Rank Assumption
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
 0021-9983, Vol.
12
,
04
1978
, pp. 177-194.
9.
Gottesman
,
T.
,
Hashin
,
Z.
, and
Brull
,
M. A.
, “
Effective Elastic Properties of Cracked Materials
,” N00014-78-C-0544, TR-6,
Office of Naval Research
,
05
1981
.
10.
Hashin
,
Z.
, “
A Reinterpretation of the Palmgreen-Miner Rule for Fatigue Life Prediction
,”
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936, Vol.
47
,
06
1980
, pp. 324-329.
11.
Laws
,
N.
,
Dvorak
,
G. J.
, and
Hejazi
,
M.
, “
Stiffness Changes in Unidirectional Composites Caused By Cracked Systems
,”
Mechanics of Materials
, Vol.
2
,
North Holland
,
Amsterdam
,
1983
, 123-137.
12.
Dvorak
,
G. J.
, “
Analysis of Progressive Matrix Cracking in Composite Laminates
,” AFOSR-82-0308,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
,
Troy, NY
,
03
1985
.
13.
Talreja
,
R.
, “
Fatigue of Composite Materials: Damage Mechanisms and Fatigue-Life Diagrams
,”
Proceedings
,
Royal Society of London
, Vol.
A 378
,
1981
, pp. 461-475.
14.
Talreja
,
R.
, “
A Continuum Mechanics Characterization of Damage in Composite Materials
,”
Proceedings
,
Royal Society of London
, Vol.
399A
,
1985
, pp. 195-216.
15.
Coleman
,
B. D.
and
Gurtin
,
M. E.
, “
Thermodynamics With Internal State Variables
,”
Journal of Chemical Physics
 0021-9606, Vol.
47
, No.
2
,
1967
, pp. 597-613.
16.
Krajcinovic
,
D.
and
Fonseka
,
G. U.
, “
The Continuous Damage Theory of Brittle Materials, Part I: General Theory
,”
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936, Vol.
48
,
1981
, pp. 809-815.
17.
Fonseka
,
G. U.
and
Krajcinovic
,
D.
, “
The Continuous Damage Theory of Brittle Materials, Part II: Uniaxial and Plane Response Modes
,”
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936, Vol.
48
,
1981
, pp. 816-824.
18.
Krajcinovic
,
D.
, “
Constitutive Equations for Damaging Materials
,” Transactions, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 83-APM-12, Houston,
1983
.
19.
Allen
,
D. H.
,
Harris
,
C. E.
, and
Groves
,
S. E.
, “
A Thermomechanical Constitutive Theory for Elastic Composites with Distributed Damage—Part I: Theoretical Development
,”
Journal of Solids and Structures
,
1987
, Vol.
23
, No.
4
, pp. 1301-1318.
20.
Allen
,
D. H.
,
Harris
,
C. E.
, and
Groves
,
S. E.
, “
A Thermomechanical Constitutive Theory for Elastic Composites with Distributed Damage—Part II: Application to Matrix Cracking in Laminated Composites
,”
International Journal of Solids and Structures
 0020-7683,
1987
, Vol.
23
, No.
9
, pp. 1319-1338.
21.
Groves
,
S. E.
,
Harris
,
C. E.
,
Highsmith
,
A. L.
,
Allen
,
D. H.
, and
Norvell
,
G.
, “
An Experimental and Analytical Treatment of the Mechanics of Damage in Laminated Composites
,” to appear in
Experimental Mechanics
, Vol.
27
, No.
1
,
1987
, pp. 73-79.
22.
Norvell
,
G.
, “
An Investigation of Damage Accumulation in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates
,” Master's thesis,
Texas A&M University
, College Station, TX,
1985
.
23.
Georgiou
,
I. T.
, “
Initiation Mechanisms and Fatigue Growth of Internal Delaminations in Graphite/Epoxy Crossply Laminates
,” Master's thesis,
Texas A&M University
, College Station, TX,
1986
.
24.
Allen
,
D. H.
,
Harris
,
C. E.
,
Groves
,
S. E.
, and
Norvell
,
R. G.
, “
Characterization of Stiffness Loss in Crossply Laminates with Curved Cracks
,”
Journal of Composite Materials
 0021-9983,
01
1988
, Vol.
22
, No.
1
, pp. 71-80.
25.
Jones
,
R. M.
,
Mechanics of Composite Materials
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
,
1975
.
26.
Mindlin
,
R. D.
, “
Influence of Rotary Inertia and Shear on Flexural Motions of Isotropic, Elastic Plates
,” Transactions, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936, Vol.
18
,
1951
.
27.
Reissner
,
E.
, “
The Effect of Transverse Shear Deformation on the Bending of Elastic Plates
,” Transactions, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Journal of Applied Mechanics
 0021-8936, Vol.
12
,
1945
.
28.
Reddy
,
J. N.
, “
A Refined Nonlinear Theory of Plates with Transverse Shear Deformation
,”
International Journal of Solids and Structures
 0020-7683, Vol.
20
,
1984
.
29.
Groves
,
S. E.
, “
A Study of Damage Mechanics in Continuous Fiber Composite Laminates with Matrix Cracking and Interply Delaminations
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
Texas A&M University
, College Station, TX,
1986
.
30.
O'Brien
,
T. K.
, “
Characterization of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Composite Laminate
,”
Damage in Composite Materials
, ASTM STP 775,
Reifsnider
K. L.
, Ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia
,
1982
, pp. 141-167.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal